Eastern Mojave Vegetation
Images -- Frasera albomarginata

By Tom Schweich


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Images are organized by the topics listed at left. Click on a topic name to see images with that topic.

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Age at Flowering

Age of Frasera albomarginata at Flowering

My data set contains data about 276 individual plants that have been observed between 30 April 1996 and 7 June 2006. A chart of the ages of plants when they flowered and set seed is shown above. On 7 June 2006, 42 of the 134 plants shown as "3 - Still Growing" were in some stage of forming buds, flowering, or setting seed. Therefore, category "3 - Still Growing" is clearly overstated.

This chart shows that F. albomarginata can be a biennial as seven plants flowered in the second season following germination and establishment. Three plants flowered in the third season. The remaining 15 plants that flowered were 4 or more years in age. The reason I say 4 years or more is that these plants were established rosettes in my experimental plots when the plots were established. I don't really know how old they are. I think, though, that it is reasonable to assume that these plants were established after the heavy bloom of 1993. Therefore, a preliminary conclusion is that the species is a biennial at a minumum, probably grows two to seven years before flowering, but that the age of flowering is probably influenced mainly by precipitation.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 140500.

        images/SwealbAgeRepro.gif

Arizona

Distribution of Frasera in Arizona

Map prepared 20 Feb 2012.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Frasera: 201010.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: distribution map.

        images/Arizona_Overview.jpg

Arizona, Cochise County

Coll. No. 731, Frasera albomarginata

Scanned 1 Jan 2012.

Article records that use this photograph:

        images/TAS007310Oview.jpg

Arizona, Cochise County, Johnson

View east. There were a few Frasera albomarginata in the open gravel.

Photograph taken 26 April 2011. This location is about 2 miles north of the former town of Johnson, and is looking generally east. The hills in the middle ground are known as the Steele Hills.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Habitat of Frasera albomarginata

Photograph taken 26 April 2011. This location is about 2 miles north of the former town of Johnson, and is looking generally south. There is a Frasera albomarginata in the center of the photograph and another rosette just to the left.

Article records that use this photograph:

        images/IMG_1675sm.jpg

Roadside habitat of Frasera albomarginata.

Photograph taken 26 April 2011. This location is about 1.5 miles north of the former town of Johnson, and is looking generally south. There is a Frasera albomarginata in the center of the photograph and another rosette just to the right.

Article records that use this photograph:

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View north.

Photograph taken 26 April 2011. This location is about 2 miles north of the former town of Johnson, and is looking generally north.

Article records that use this photograph:

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View of Little Dragoon Mountains from 7 Dash Ranch Road.

Photograph taken 26 April 2011. This location is about 2 miles north of the former town of Johnson, and is looking generally west.

Location records that use this photograph:

Article records that use this photograph:

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Locality of Frasera albomarginata

Photograph taken 26 April 2011. This location is about 2 miles north of the former town of Johnson.

Location records that use this photograph:

Article records that use this photograph:

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Arizona, Mohave County

Prime Frasera albomarginata habitat near Mokaac Pass.

Photograph taken June 9, 2008.

The Frasera albomarginata was growing in the road cut. I was unable to find the taxon growing on the natural slopes above or below the road.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Frasera albomarginata growing in tread of old road on Quail Hill, Arizona

Photograph taken June 9, 2008.

The arrow shows the width of the right-hand tread of this old road.

Article records that use this photograph:

        images/IMG00946sm.jpg

Collection No. 547, Frasera albomarginata, near Mokaac Pass, Mohave County, Arizona.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: near Mokaac Pass.

        images/IMG01468sm.jpg

Habitat of Frasera albomarginata on the northeast slope of the Hualapai Mountains

Photograph taken by John L. Anderson on 3 Feb 2012.

Location records that use this photograph:

Article records that use this photograph:

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Habitat of Frasera albomarginata on the northeast slope of the Hualapai Mountains

Photograph taken by John L. Anderson on 3 Feb 2012.

Location records that use this photograph:

Article records that use this photograph:

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Beaver Dam State Park

Frasera albomarginata in Beaver Dam State Park.

Photograph taken June 4, 2009.

Location records that use this photograph:

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Frasera albomarginata in Campground "B"

Photograph taken June 4, 2009.

Location records that use this photograph:

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View of Beaver Dam State Park from entrance

Photograph taken June 4, 2009.

Location records that use this photograph:

Article records that use this photograph:

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Blue 73

Blue 73 at Pinto Mountain

This plant is one of the longest-lived plants at Pinto Mountain. It now has two growth centers.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Blue 73.

        images/TS3038-R1-3.jpg

Blue 73 in April, 2004.

Photograph taken April 22, 2004.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Blue 73.

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Blue 73 at Pinto Mountain on 7-Jun-06.

Photograph taken 7-Jun-06.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Frasera albomarginata Blue 73 on May 28, 2005.

Photograph taken May 28, 2005.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Blue 73.

        images/IMGP1311sm.jpg

California, San Bernardino County, Caruthers Cyn

Collection No. 186, Frasera albomarginata, desert elkweed.

Grid is 10x10 to the inch.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Coll. No. 565

Coll. No. 565, Frasera albomarginata

Photograph taken June 4, 2009.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Collection No. 549

Collection No. 549

Photograph taken June 10, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 20080610080.
  • Nevada State Route 486, White Pine County, Nevada: near Cave Lake.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: near Cave Lake St Pk.

        images/IMG00999sm.jpg

Collection No. 550

Frasera albomarginata just west of Ely, Nevada

Photograph taken June 10, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 20080610110.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: southwest of Ely.

        images/IMG01003sm.jpg

Collection No. 551

Prime Frasera albomarginata habitat.

Photograph taken June 11, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 11-Jun-08.
  • Road North from US Highway 50, White Pine County, Nevada: 85000.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: near Little Antelope Summit.

        images/IMG01018sm.jpg

Collection No. 551

Photograph taken June 11, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Collection No. 552

Collection No. 552

Photograph taken June 11, 2008.

Location records that use this photograph:

Article records that use this photograph:

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Collection No. 552

Photograph taken June 11, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Collection No. 553

Collection No. 553

Photograph taken June 11, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

        images/IMG01044sm.jpg

Collection No. 565

Frasera albomarginata habitat, as prepared by the Lincoln County Road Department

Photograph taken June 4, 2009.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Collection No. 566

Nodal area that has been eaten

Scanned 2 Nov 2009.

Scanned at 1200 dpi, grid is 10 x 10 to the inch.

        images/TAS005660node.jpg

Flower

Scanned 2 Nov 2009.

Scanned at 1200 dpi, grid is 10 x 10 to the inch.

        images/TAS005660fl.jpg

Collections

Collection No. 183, Wild Horse Mesa.

Frasera albomarginata collected on the north face of Wild Horse Mesa, May 29, 1999.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Wild Horse Canyon Road - Mojave National Preserve: Wild Horse Mesa.
  • Field Notes: Coll. No. 183.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 151510.

        images/tas001830.jpg

Collection No. 184, Coal Pits Wash, Utah.

This is my collection of F. albomarginata from Coal Pits Wash, Utah, near Zion National Park.

Location records that use this photograph:

Article records that use this photograph:

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Colorado, Montezuma County

Prime Frasera albomarginata habitat in road cut.

Photograph taken June 3, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Collection No. 533

Grid is 10x10 to the inch.

        images/TAS005330oview.jpg

Distribution

Distribution of Frasera albomarginata in the Death Valley Region.

Map prepared 25-Jan-08.

In the Death Valley Region, Mary DeDecker (1984) states that Frasera albomarginata is found in the Last Chance Range, and in particular on Dry Mountain.

I have found only one collection. There may be others, however, in the Death Valley herbarium, and in regional herbaria such as UNLV.

My own collection (#266, 10/7/2000) was made on the top of the ridge about 1 1/2 miles southeast of Last Chance Mountain. Here the species was found in open places on stony limestone-derived soil among pinyons and small shrubs.

Location records that use this photograph:

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: in Death Valley region.

        images/161500_Death_Valley_2008_01_25.jpg

Distribution of Frasera albomarginata near the Grand Canyon.

Map prepared 21-Jan-08.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: at Grand Canyon.

        images/161140_Grand_Canyon_2008_01_21.jpg

Distribution of Frasera albomarginata in the Escalante area, Utah

Map prepared 21-Jan-08.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: near Escalante.

        images/161150_Escalante_2008_01_21.jpg

Distribution of Frasera albomarginata in central Utah

Map prepared 21-Jan-08.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: in central Utah.

        images/161160_Central_Utah_2008_01_21.jpg

Distribution of Frasera albomarginata in Lincoln County, Nevada

Map prepared 22-Jan-08.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: in Pioche area.

        images/161360_2008_01_22.jpg

Distribution of Frasera albomarginata in Cochise County, Arizona

Map Prepared 25-Jan-08.

Kearney and Peebles (1960) Flora of Arizona states the species occurs near Johnson, at elevations of 4,500 to 7,000 ft., and there is a small cluster of three collections from southeastern Arizona, near Benson.

Two of the three collections appear to have been made close-by to each other, at locations described as "near Johnson," and "in the foothills of the Little Dragoon Mountains." Both of these locations are on the southeast side of the Little Dragoon Mountains. R. A. Darrow collected Frasera albomarginata (#3451, 3 May 1946) 3 miles north of Johnson, on alluvial soil from limestone ridge, with associated mesquite. R. K. Van Devender and W. D. Peachey collected (#93-618, 5 May 1993) in the foothills of Little Dragoon Mountains, about 3.2 mi from pavement at Johnson Road exit of I-10, beyond Arimetco mine pit, where it was described as abundant along disturbed roadside in overgrazed grassland.

The third location is described by the collectors as locally common in desert scrub about 7 miles southwest Hookers Hot Springs. However, the geographic coordinates and the Public Land Survey System descriptions given for this location are about 10 miles south-southeast of Hookers Hot Springs. This location is also about 10 miles northwest of Johnson. There are few named landmarks in this area, except for Tres Alamos Wash which drains this area.

Regardless of the proximity of the three collections, this cluster is located about 220 miles (335 km) from the nearest other collections at Petrified Forest National Park.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: in southeastern Arizona.

        images/161100_Southeastern_Arizona_2008_01_25.jpg

Distribution of Frasera albomarginata in the eastern Mojave, San Bernardino County, California

Map Prepared 25-Jan-08.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: in the eastern Mojave.

        images/161600_Eastern_Mojave_2008_01_25.jpg

Distribution of Frasera albomarginata in the Spring Mountains and the Sheep Range, Clark County, Nevada

Map Prepared 25-Jan-08.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: in southern Nevada.

        images/161550_S_Nevada_2008_01_25.jpg

Distribution of Frasera albomarginata in the Mt. Irish, Pahranagat, and Groom Ranges, Lincoln County, Nevada

Map prepared 22-Jan-08.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: in w. Lincoln Cty.

        images/161370_2008_01_22.jpg

Dried flower stalk.

Dried flower stalk.

Photograph taken in September 1998 on the north face of Wild Horse Mesa. The seed capsules were 1/3 to 1/2 full of seed. This leads me to believe that the primary mode of seed dispersal is shaking of the flower stalk by the wind.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Seed.

        images/3201-24.jpg

Early Growth

First year rosette at North Wild Horse Mesa.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Early Growth Stage.

        images/swewilhorseed2.jpg

Early growth

Young Frasera albomarginata.

Early growth for Frasera albomarginata is development of a rosette of leaves and a caudex.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Early Growth Stage.

        images/swewilhorseed.jpg

Establishment

Staked plant at Pinto Mountain.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Establishment.

        images/swepmstake.jpg

Flower

Frasera albomarginata, rosette of leaves.

This rosette, about 6 cm across, is growing in loose rock.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Introduction.

        images/SwealbRosette.jpg

Frasera albomarginata infloresence.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 100600.

        images/SwealbInfl.jpg

Frasera albomarginata flower.

This is a close-up of a F. albomarginata flower. I took this photograph in mid-May, 1993. The species did not bloom again in any significant numbers until late-June, 1999.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 100700. 152000.

        images/swealb4.jpg

Frasera albomarginata that failed in bud.

My examination of one Frasera albomarginata that budded but failed to flower showed that the caudex was still fleshy. This would imply that F. albomarginata might bud again, if it fails to flower the first time. However, later observation showed that once a a plant buds and then fails to flower, it will die without attempting to flower again.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 19961018010. Coll. No. 149.1.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 143000.

        images/swealbfail.jpg

Frasera albomarginata that failed in bid.

Scanned 1 January 2013.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: Coll. No. 149.1.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 143000.

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Flower at Wild Horse Mesa

Photographed 28 May 2012.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Foveae

Fovae.

Diagram of foveae found in specimens of Frasera albomarginata

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 153000.

        images/swealb_fovea.gif

Diagram of foveae of Frasera albomarginata

        images/fovea.gif

Habitat

Frasera albomarginata near the Giant Ledge Mine.

Also found near the Giant Ledge Mine, this specimen of Frasera albomarginata was growing in shade on the edge of an incised watercourse. Notice, though, that there is quite a bit of soil between the cobbles.

Location records that use this photograph:

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 175000.

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Habitat, Nevada, Spring Mountains

Frasera albomarginata with Rock Spiraea (Petrophyton sp.).

Photograph taken September 1998 at Desert Viewpoint on the Deer Creek Highway in the Spring Mountains.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Nevada State Route 158: 14000.

        images/3201-47.jpg

Habitat for Frasera albomarginata along NV SR 158 -- Deer Creek Highway.

Near the intersection of Kyle Canyon Road and the Deer Creek Highway, this old gravel road provided the openings that the species seems to prefer.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Nevada State Route 158: 19000.

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Last Chance Range

Rosette on Last Chance Mountain

Photograph taken October 7, 2000.

Location records that use this photograph:

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 20001007100.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 16150030.

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Area on Last Chance Mountain where Frasera albomarginata was found.

Photograph taken October 7, 2000.

Location records that use this photograph:

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 20001007100.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 16150030.

        images/0091_3182_0174_34.jpg

Layout of Plots

Layout of plots in Frasera albomarginata.

        images/swealb_pg4.gif

Layout of plots in Frasera albomarginata.

        images/swealb_pg4.gif

Life cycle

Diagram of possible Frasera albomarginata life cycle.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 181000.

        images/swealb_lifecycle.gif

Lincoln County

Locations of Frasera albomarginata in Silver King Pass, Lincoln County, Nevada.

Map drawn June 26, 2009.

Location records that use this photograph:

Article records that use this photograph:

  • "Bristol Cletty Road" or "Silver King Road," Nye and Lincoln Counties, Nevada: at Silver King Pass.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: in Silver King Pass.

        images/NVLinSilverKingPass.jpg

Frasera albomarginata east of Silver King Pass

Photograph taken June 5, 2009.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Frasera albomarginata east of Silver King Pass

Photograph taken June 5, 2009.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Frasera albomarginata in Bristol Pass

Photograph taken June 5, 2009.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Frasera albomarginata northwest of Crestline, Nevada

Photograph taken June 5, 2009.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 20090605030.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: nw of Crestline.
  • Crestline Road, Washington and Iron Counties, Utah, and Lincoln County, Nevada: nw of Crestline.

        images/IMG01884sm.jpg

Literature Cited

Interim report.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 217000.

        images/swealb_interim.gif

Summary of Literature.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 209000.

        images/swealb_lit_ti1.gif

Summary of Literature.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 206000.

        images/swealb_lit_bbe2.gif

Summary of Literature.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 204000.

        images/swealb_lit_bbe1.gif

Research of the genus Swertia by Phillipe Chassot.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Frequently Asked Questions: V0620030704.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 203000.

        images/swealb_chassot.gif

Maps

Location of one experimental plots in Frasera albomarginata.

This plot is on the south face of Pinto Mountain north of Cedar Canyon Road.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: at Quail Rock Ranch.

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Location of one experimental plot in Frasera albomarginata.

This plot is on the south face of Pinto Mountain north of Cedar Canyon Road.

        images/pmx.gif

Distribution of Frasera albomarginata.

Drawn 19 March 2011.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: distribution map.

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Location of Frasera albomarginata on the north slope of Wild Horse Mesa.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Methods

The author collecting data on the north face of Wild Horse Mesa in May 1988.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 129000.

        images/tomdata.jpg

Working in the experimental plot on the north face of Wild Horse Mesa.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 128000.

        images/tomstick.jpg

Nevada, Eureka County

Collection No. 552, Frasera albomarginata, from Secret Canyon, Nevada.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: in Secret Cyn.

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Prime Frasera albomarginata habitat in Secret Canyon, Nevada.

Photograph taken June 11, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Frasera albomarginata in Secret Canyon

Photograph taken June 11, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

        images/IMG01023sm.jpg

Nevada, Lincoln County

Frasera albomarginata along side Beaver Dam Road.

Photograph taken June 4, 2009.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Beaver Dam Road, Lincoln County, Nevada: near Empy Mountain.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: near Empy Mtn.

        images/IMG01864sm.jpg

Location of observation.

Photograph taken June 4, 2009.

Location records that use this photograph:

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Beaver Dam Road, Lincoln County, Nevada: near Empy Mountain.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: near Empy Mtn.

        images/NVLinEmpyMtn.jpg

Frasera albomarginata habitat near Acoma.

Photograph taken June 4, 2009.

Location records that use this photograph:

  • Acoma, Lincoln County, Nevada

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 20090604080.
  • Beaver Dam Road, Lincoln County, Nevada: near Acoma.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 16136071.

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Nevada, Nye County

Collection No. 553, Frasera albomarginata near Currant Summit, Nevada

Article records that use this photograph:

        images/IMG01460sm.jpg

Nevada, White Pine County

Frasera albomarginata near Connors Pass

Photograph taken June 10, 2008.

There are three Frasera albomarginata in the photo.

Article records that use this photograph:

        images/IMG00996sm.jpg

Location of Frasera albomarginata southwest of Ely, Nevada.

Photograph taken June 10, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 20080610110.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: southwest of Ely.
  • U. S. Highway 6: 51100.

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Little plant in ditch.

Photograph taken June 11, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

        images/IMG01019sm.jpg

Collection No. 551, Frasera albomarginata

Grid is 10x10 to the inch.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: near Little Antelope Summit.

        images/TAS005510scan.jpg

Collection No. 550, Frasera albomarginata, near Murry Canyon, Nevada.

Grid is 10x10 to the inch.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: southwest of Ely.

        images/TAS005500scan.jpg

Collection No. 549, Frasera albomarginata, near Cave Lake State Park, Nevada.

Grid is 10x10 to the inch.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: near Cave Lake St Pk.

        images/TAS005490scan.jpg

Frasera albomarginata near Robinson Summit, Nevada.

Photograph taken June 11, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

        images/IMG01012sm.jpg

Pinto Mountain plot.

The Hackberry Complex Fire burned quite close to my plot.

Photograph taken October 15, 2005.

I took this photo while standing at the edge of my plot, looking south.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Plot at Pinto Mountain

A last look at my plot on Pinto Mountain.

Photographed 28 May 2012.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Plot at Wild Horse Mesa

A last look at my plot on Wild Horse Mesa

Photographed 28 May 2012.

Article records that use this photograph:

        images/IMG30167sm.jpg

Population

Population of F. albomarginata and Salvia dorrii by observation date.

This figure shows the total population of F. albomarginata at both sites by date observed. A comparison is made with the population in a nearby plot of Salvia dorrii. I established the plot in April, 1997 as part of a separate study, then realized that the plot may provide a control for Frasera albomarginata populations.

Salvia dorrii is a common woody perennial that produces significant amounts of seed. In my gardening with Salvia dorrii I have learned that the species germinates readily, and seedlings establish quickly. Not surprisingly, the population of Salvia dorrii increased at the same time as Frasera albomarginata during the El Niño years of 1998-1999.

The populations of both species plummeted in the drought years of 2001-2003.

The number of Frasera albomarginata increased rapidly, after the drought in 2004-2006, because there was seed stored in the soil. However, the population of Salvia dorrii did not increase because there is no soil seed bank, and the living plants had to recover and produce seed over several years before there would be seedlings.

Unfortunately, we will never know whether the number of Salvia dorrii would have increased in 2006 because the species was extirpated from my plot by the Hackberry Complex Fire of June 22-25, 2005.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Effects of the Hackberry Complex Fire in Mojave National Preserve, June 22-25, 2005.: 241020.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 139100.

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Frasera albomarginata population.

This chart shows the total number of F. albomarginata at the two experimental sites, north Wild Horse Mesa and Pinto Mountain, by observation date.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 140000.

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Rainfall records related to heavy "bloom" of F. albomarginata.

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Population of F. albomarginata compared to recent years' rainfall.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 139050.

        images/swealb_clim_pop.gif

Predation

Something's eating my little weeds!!!!

Photograph taken June 4, 2009.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 20090604100.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 197000010.

        images/IMG01875sm.jpg

Relation to Soils

Frasera albomarginata habitat in Caruthers Canyon.

Cauthers Canyon, opening in woodland in which many Frasera albomarginata were growing.

Location records that use this photograph:

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 169000.

        images/sweenvcarcyn.jpg

F. albomarginata growing in a cryptogamic soil.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 177000.

        images/swenvcgut.jpg

Frasera albomarginata in alluvial soil near Apex Mine, Utah.

Location records that use this photograph:

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: near Apex Mine. 173000.

        images/swenvamut.jpg

Typical habitat of F. albomarginata in the Beaverdam Mountains.

Article records that use this photograph:

        images/swenvbdut.jpg

S. radiata

Frasera speciosa at Carson Pass, California.

Photograph taken in August 1998, on the trail to Winnemuca Lake.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 201000.

        images/3201-5.jpg

Seed capsules

Open seed capsules of Frasera albomarginata.

Photograph taken in September 1998 on the north face of Wild Horse Mesa.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Seed.

        images/3201-25.jpg

Small plant

A small F. albomarginata plant at Pinto Mountain.

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Soil relations

Frasera albomarginata growing in granite.

Here is an exception to the typical soil relations of Frasera albomarginata. These are two plants growing in a fracture in granite. The picture was taken at the Giant Ledge Mine in Caruthers Canyon. However, the outcrop is very close to the contact between the granite and the limestone it was intruding. Therefore, it may be that the chemistry of the granite has been altered and that it may contain a substantial amount of carbonates.

Location records that use this photograph:

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 174000.

        images/swegrcarcyn.jpg

Spring Mountains

Frasera albomarginata growing in old gravel road near the Deer Creek Highway.

This photograph was taken in the Spring Mountains, Nevada, in September, 1998.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Nevada State Route 158: 20000.

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Taxonomy

St. John, 1941

Revision of the Genus Swertia (Gentianaceae) of the Americas and the Reduction of Frasera

Harold St. John

The genus Frasera was described in 1788 by Walter (FL Carol. 87-88, 1788) with a single species, F. caroliniensis. Numerous species from western North America were added by later authors and the genus was generally accepted, as it was by Asa Gray and by Bentham & Hooker, and by many others. Recently H. H. Card published a revision of the genus Frasera (Mo. Bot. Gard., Ann. 18:245-282, figs. 1-4, pl. 14-15, 1931), dissatisfaction with which induced the author to prepare these notes.

In a revision of a genus one expects to find a discussion of generic interrelationship and a demonstration by the use of evidence and deduction that the group is truly of generic status. In two places Card referred to the generic position of Frasera. He writes (p. 245), "In recent years it has received various treatments in the numerous local manuals and floras; certain authors have considered it a portion of the more polymorphic and widespread genus Swertia, others have regarded it as a distinct generic unit, whereas still others have segregated it into several smaller genera." Then, (on pp. 246-247) he continues, "Treatments of the genus have appeared in the various local manuals and floras; certain workers [footnote to Rydberg] have segregated the genus into several closely allied genera, namely Frasera, Tessaranthium, and Leucocraspedum; on the other hand Gilg, in Engler and Prantl, 'Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien,' and Jepson in his recent 'Manual' have merged the genus Frasera and its segregates with Swertia." No further evidence is presented by Card nor does he explain why he follows Gray in his acceptance of the genus and rejects the later treatments of Gilg and of Jepson.

The generic status of Frasera is not to be taken for granted. Gray himself noted that the possession of a slender style (the only difference from Swertia) was not always constant, as he wrote (Bot. Calif. 1:483, 1876), that in F. thyrsiflora Hook., "The style in the latter is short, as in Swertia." The flowers of Frasera are 4-merous, but those of Swertia are either 4- or 5-merous. Frasera was reduced to the synonymy of Swertia by H. Baillon in 1889 (Hist. Pl. 10: 142, 1889). Indicating the style character as not distinctive, O. Kuntze in 1891, discussed these generic relationships, placed Frasera in synonymy under Swertia (as Sweertia), and made the new combinations (Rev. Gen. Pl. 2:430431, 1891). Swertia was accepted as an inclusive genus and Frasera was made a section under it by E. Knoblauch in 1894 (Bot. Centralbl. 60:392, 396.7,

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Image of Kuntze revision of 1891

German Literal English Translation (performed by a free web site). English
Sweertia L. incl. Frasera Walt. Frasera L. including Frasera Walt.
Ich ziehe die Gattung Frasera ein, weil der einzige UntersehiedU…, der nach BHgp.BHgp. and Asa Gray noch existieren soll, der eines ausgeprägten Griffelsg nicht stichhaltig ist. I include the species Frasera because the single difference of the style, as described by Bentham and Hooker and Asa Gray, is not valid.
Gray giebt in der Bot. Calif. selbst an: The style of the latter (Frasera thyrsiflora) is as short as in Sweertia. Gray says even in Bot. Calif. that: The style of the latter (Frasera thyrsiflora) is as short as in Swertia.
Auth Frasera Parryi Torrey = Sweertia Parryi OKok. hat einen so kurzen Griffel, wie er bei manchen Swertia-Arten sich findet. Auth Frasera Parryi Torrey = Sweertia Parryi OK. has a so short Griffel how he is found in many Swertia. types.
Aber anal die massig langgriffeligen Arten: Sweertia fastigiata PurschP = Frasera thyrsiflora Hk., Sw. carolinensis OK. (Walt.), Sw. albicaulis Dgl. = Frasera albicaulis Gris, Sw. radiatum OK. (Frasera speciosa Dgl., non Sw. speciosa Wall., = Tesseranthium radiatum Kellogg) haben keinen anders construirten Griffel als die kurzgriffeligen Sweertia-Arten; es ist ein Stylus simulate simplex, wie ich es oben bei Gentian thermalis nannte, der allenfalls nur vor der Befruchtung als ein Ganzes erscheint, der sich aber leielit der Länge nach in seine zwei Hälften trennen lässt und nach tier Befruchtung sich von selbst in zwei Griffel theilt, die auf den Kapselhälften ± persistiren. But anally that bulky langgriffeligenlg types: Sweertia fastigiata Pursh = Frasera thyrsiflora Hk., Sw carolinensis OK. (Walt.), Sw albicaulis the like. = Frasera albicaulis Gris, Sw radiatum OK. (Frasera speciosa Dgl., non Sw. speciosa Wall., = Tesseranthium radiatum Kellogg) have is itself no differently construirten Griffel as the kurzgriffeligen Sweertia types; it a Stylus simulate simplex how I named it above in Gentian thermalis, that appears in any case only before the fertilization as an entire, that however leielit can be separated according to the length into its two halves, and after animal fertilization of even in two Griffel theilt, that on the capsule halves ± Persistiren.

 Sw. bimaculata HK.f. & Th. (S. & Z.) Sikkim.
 Sw. carolinensis OK. (Frasera car. Walt.) U. St.
 Sw. Chirayta Ham. (Roxb.) Sikkim.
 Sw. javanica Bl. Java: Dieng 2500 m
 Sw. nervosa Wall. Sikkim.
 Sw. pulchella Ham. Bengalen.
 
Die zu Sweertia zu stellenden übrigen Frasera-Arten sind: Sweertia Bigelowii OK. (Frasera paniculata Torr. non Sweertia pan. Wall.) und Sw. albomarginata OK. (Frasera a. S. Watson). That to Sweertia to placing remaining Frasera-Resemble are: Sweertia Bigelowii OK. (Frasera paniculata Torr. non Sweertia pan. Wall.). and Sw albomarginata OK. (Frasera a. S. Watson). The remaining Frasera-like taxa are placed in Swertia, as follows: Swertia bigelowii Kuntze (Frasera paniculata Torr. non Swertia pan. Wall.w) and Swertia albomarginata Kuntze (Frasera a. S. Watson).

Notes:

U…"Unterseheid" is distinction or difference.
BHgp. Bentham, George, and Joseph Dalton Hooker, 1876. Genera Plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis Kewensibus. Standard form per International Plant Names Index: "Gen. Pl. [Bentham & Hooker f.]"
g Griffels = style ? In current usage "Griffels" translates as "stylus pen."
ok OK appears to be the author name that Kuntze selected for himself. Today, we use Kuntze.
P Pursch is a recognized alternate spelling of Pursh.
lg langgriffeligen = long-styled ?
w Swertia paniculata Wall. Is a Himalayan taxon described by Wallich.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Kuntze, 1893.

        images/KuntzeO1891p430-431Image2.jpg

Card, 1931

A REVISION OF THE GENUS FRASERA1

HAMILTON H. CARD

Formerly Rufus J. Lackland Research Fellow in the Henry Shaw School of Botany of Washington University

INTRODUCTION

The present study was undertaken to determine the status of the genus Frasera. In recent years it has received various treatments in the numerous local manuals and floras; certain authors have considered it a portion of the more polymorphic and widespread genus Swertia, others have regarded it as a distinct generic unit, whereas still others have segregated it into several smaller genera.

Sincere appreciation is due the curators of the herbaria of the University of California, Field Museum of Natural History, Gray Herbarium of Harvard University, and the Los Angeles Museum, for the loan of material necessary in this study. For the use of the excellent library and herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, especial thanks are due the Director, Dr. George T. Moore. The writer desires to express his appreciation to Dr. J. M. Greenman, Curator of the Herbarium of that institution, and to Dr. Mildred E. Mathias, Research Assistant, who have so generously given their advice from time to time.

HISTORY OF THE GENUS

Walter2 described the genus Frasera in 1788, naming it in honor of John Fraser, a noted plant collector of the eighteenth century. A single species, Frasera caroliniensis, was assigned to the new genus. Fifteen years later Michaux3 recognized the genus, renaming the species F. Walteri. Pursh4 in 1814 recognized

1 An investigation carried out at the Missouri Botanical Garden in the Graduate Laboratory of the Henry Shaw School of Botany of Washington University, and submitted as a thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy in the Henry Shaw School of Botany of Washington University. 2 Walt. Fl. Carol. 87. 1788. 3 Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 96. 1803. 4 Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 1: 101. 1814.

Issued June 30, 1931. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden Vol. 18, 1931 (245)

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Card 1931.

        images/CardHH1931.jpg

Threadgill and Baskin (1978) paper on Frasera

Swertia caroliniensis or Frasera caroliniensis?

PAUL F. THREADGILL 1 and JERRY M. BASKIN

ABSTRACT

Most modern state and regional floras for eastern North America use the binomial Swertia caroliniensis (Walt.) Kuntze, rather than Frasera caroliniensis Walt., for the American Columbo. Cytological studies by Rork (1949) and cytological, morphological and anatomical studies by Post (1956) provide strong evidence that Frasera Walt. is a distinct genus from Swertia L. Recent chemical studies on F. caroliniensis by Stout and Balkenhol (1969) further support the separation of the two genera. Thus, the correct binomial for the eastern American Columbo is Frasera caroliniensis Walt.

Frasera, a small genus in the Gentianaceae, was first described by Walter in his Flora Caroliniana in 1788. Originally the genus was monospecific, the type being the eastern North American species Frasera caroliniensis Walt. (Card, 1931; St. John, 1941). This new genus was distinguished from Swertia L., a cosmopolitan genus which it closely resembles, by two morphological characteristics: its flowers are 4-merous while those of Swertia species are 5-merous, and it possesses a distinct style while Swertia species have none (Post, 1956). Michaux in 1803, Pursh in 1814, Rafinesque in 1828, Grise- bach in 1838, Bentham and Hooker in 1876, Gray in 1878 and others accepted the validity of Frasera as a distinct genus (Card, 1931; St. John, 1941; Rork, 1949). Gradually the genus was ex- panded to include several taxa. In the latest monograph of the genus, Post (1956) recognized 20 species and subspecies. Meanwhile, the genus Swertia was expanded to include several Asiatic species, a num- ber of which had flowers that were 4-merous (Post, 1956). These new additions to Swertia caused many taxonomists to question whether or not sufficient cause existed to justify a delineation be- tween Swertia and Frasera on the generic level.


1 Present address: Department of Botany, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Threadgill and Baskin 1978.

        images/ThreadgillPFB1978.jpg

Image of first description of Frasera

TETRANDRIA. MONOGYNIA, &c. 87 Four Stamens, One Style, etc.
69. FRASERA. Cal.1 tetraphyllus , fol. lanceolatis, perfiftens. Stem four-leaved, leaves lanceolate, persistent
Cor. tetrapetala, petalis acuminatis, intus ad medium barbatis, incarnatis. Corolla four-petaled, petals acuminate, on the inside bearded at the middle, flesh-colored.
Stam. filamenta quatuor fubulata, longitudine corollæ, anthere oblongæ, incumbentes. Stamen filaments four tapering to a fine point, fused at the corolla(?), anthers oblong, separate(?).
Pift. germen fuperum, magnum ovatum. Stylus brevis. Stigma obtifu bifidum. Pistil ovary superior, greatly ovate, style short, stigma two-lobed.
Per. filiqua ovata acuminata unilocularis. Per. capsule ovate tapering to a point, single-locule
Sem. plurima compreffa marginata imbricata. Seed very much compressed with overlapping margins.
carolinienfis I. caule erecto, ramis2 floriferis verticilatis; pedunculis unifloris geminis, longitudine inæqualibus, axillaribus; foliis lanceolatis. erect stem, with whorled flowering branches; twinned or paired single-flowered peduncles, lenthwise inequal, axillary; leaf lanceolate
Notes:

1. "Cal." must be an abbreviation of "caule" or stem.
2.Perhaps "ramis" is "ramus" or stem.

Full Title: Flora Caroliniana, secundum Systema vegetabilium Linnæi digesta, characteres essentiales naturalesve et differentias veras exhibens; cum emendationibus numerosis, descriptionum antea evulgatarum adumbrationes stirpium plus mille continens, necnon generibus novis non paucis, speciebus plurimis novisq. ornata.

URL: http://www.botanicus.org/title/b12073714#

Book contributed by Missouri Botanical Garden

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Walter, 1788.

        images/WalterT1788p87Image2.jpg

Figure 1 from Chassot, et al. (2001)

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: adoption of Frasera.

        images/ChassotPNYK2001Fig1.gif

Image of the original description of Swertia albomarginata.

FRASERA ALBOMARGINATA. Slender, 2-3° high, glabrous, branching into an open panicle; branches and branchlets verticillate in fours or sometimes opposite; leaves verticillate in fours, narrowly oblanceolate, 2-4' long, 3-5" wide, obtuse or acute, margined with a silvery-white line and more or less undulate; upper leaves and bracts lanceolate from a clasping base, acuminate; pedicels spreading, 3-2' long; calyx-lobes 2-3" long, ovate-lanceolate; corolla 9" in diameter, the petals broad-oblong, acute, greenish yellow, dotted with black above the middle, the base deeper green; gland linear-oblong, fringed with a villous border, expanding at the top into a broad obcordate deep-green villous spot—Near St. George in Southern Utah, (Dr. Palmer, 1870.)

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: taxonomy.

        images/Watson1871Image1sm.jpg

Utah

Distribution of Frasera in Utah

Map prepared 20 Feb 2012.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Frasera: 201010.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: distribution map.

        images/Utah_Overview.jpg

Utah, Beaver County

Collection #548

Photograph taken June 9, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

        images/IMG00960sm.jpg

Frasera albomarginata west of Wah Wah Summit.

Photograph taken June 9, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

        images/IMG00966sm.jpg

Collection No. 548, Frasera albomarginata near Wah Wah Summit

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 16139036.

        images/IMG01465sm.jpg

Utah, Emery County

Collection No. 534, Frasera albomarginata, on San Rafael Swell, Utah

Grid is 10x10 to the inch.

        images/TAS005340infl.jpg

Frasera albomarginata habitat at Ghost Rock

Photograph taken June 6, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

        images/IMG00881sm.jpg

Frasera albomarginata on Cedar Mountain

Photograph taken June 6, 2008.

There is another little rosette in the lower left of the photo.

Article records that use this photograph:

        images/IMG00867sm.jpg

Frasera albomarginata on Cedar Mountain

Photograph taken June 6, 2008.

Location records that use this photograph:

Article records that use this photograph:

        images/IMG00871sm.jpg

Collection No. 545, Frasera albomarginata, from Ghost Rock, Utah.

Grid is 10x10 to the inch.

        images/TAS005450infl.jpg

Frasera albomarginata habitat.

Photograph taken June 6, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

        images/IMG00865sm.jpg

Collection No. 545, Frasera albomarginata, from Ghost Rock, Utah.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: at Ghost Rock.

        images/TAS005450oview.jpg

Collection No. 534, Frasera albomarginata, on San Rafael Swell, Utah

Grid is 10x10 to the inch.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: on Cedar Mountain.

        images/TAS005340fl.jpg

Collection No. 534, Frasera albomarginata, on San Rafael Swell, Utah

Grid is 10x10 to the inch.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: on Cedar Mountain.

        images/TAS005340oview.jpg

Curbside habitat of Frasera albomarginata at Ghost Rock Rest Stop

Photograph taken June 6, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

        images/IMG00882sm.jpg

Frasera albomarginata on Cedar Mountain

Photograph taken June 6, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

        images/IMG00872sm.jpg

Frasera albomarginata on Cedar Mountain

Photograph taken June 6, 2008.

Location records that use this photograph:

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 200806060534.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: on Cedar Mountain.
  • Emery County Route 206 (EM206), Emery County Utah: near Wimmer Flat.

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Utah, Garfield County

Frasera albomarginata habitat

Photograph taken June 7, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Frasera albomarginata along the Burr Trail Road.

Photograph taken June 7, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Frasera albomarginata east of Escalante

Photograph taken June 7, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Frasera albomarginata habitat east of Escalante

Photograph taken June 7, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Collection No. 546, Frasera albomarginata, above Capitol Reef, Utah.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 7-Jun-08.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: near Capitol Reef.

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Frasera albomarginata habitat along the Burr Trail Road

Photograph taken June 7, 2008.

Location records that use this photograph:

Article records that use this photograph:

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One of the few Frasera albomarginata that had been eaten.

Photograph taken June 7, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Utah, San Juan County

Flowers of Collection No. 532, Frasera albomarginata

Grid is 10x10 to the inch.

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Frasera albomarginata habitat near Squaw and Papoose Rock. Location of Collection No. 532.

Photograph taken June 4, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Location of Collection No. 532 of Frasera albomarginata near Squaw and Papoose Rock.

Photograph taken June 4, 2008.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Collection No. 532, Frasera albomarginata

Article records that use this photograph:

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Collection No. 532, Frasera albomarginata, near Squaw and Papoose Rock, Utah.

Grid is 10x10 to the inch.

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Vegetation

Experimental plot in Frasera albomarginata on the north slope of Wild Horse Mesa.

Photograph of my experimental plot for Frasera albomarginata on the north slope of Wild Horse Mesa.

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Experimental plot in Frasera albomarginata, north slope of Wild Horse Mesa.

This is a photograph of my experimental plot on the north face of Wild Horse Mesa. The white stakes mark the location of individual plants of Frasera albomarginata. The soil is poorly developed on a broken lacustrine (fresh-water) limestone known as the Winkler Formation.

Location records that use this photograph:

Article records that use this photograph:

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Photograph of staked Frasera albomarginata.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 127000.

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White 142

White 142 at Pinto Mountain on 7-Jun-06.

Photograph taken 7-Jun-06.

Article records that use this photograph:

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White 142 in June, 2007

Photograph taken 4-Jun-07.

White 142 had set quite a bit of seed.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 14827.

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Frasera albomarginata White 142 on May 28, 2005.

Photograph taken May 28, 2005.

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White 152

White 152 on 7-Jun-06

Photograph taken 7-Jun-06.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 7-Jun-06 at Wild Horse Mesa.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 14827.

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White 153

White 153 on 7-Jun-06

Photograph taken 7-Jun-06.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 7-Jun-06 at Wild Horse Mesa.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 14827.

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White 167

White 167 on 7-Jun-06.

Photograph taken 7-Jun-06.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 7-Jun-06 at Wild Horse Mesa.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 14827.

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White 168

White 168 on 7-Jun-06.

Photograph taken 7-Jun-06.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 7-Jun-06 at Wild Horse Mesa.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 14827.

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White 219

W219 in bloom

Photograph taken June 2, 2009

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 14827.

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White 248

W248 with main stalk eaten.

Photograph taken June 2, 2009

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 20090602030.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 14827.

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White 319

W319 on an animal burrow.

Photograph taken June 1, 2009

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 14827.

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White 42

White 42 in April, 2004

Photograph taken April 22, 2004.

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Wild Horse Mesa

Some Frasera albomarginata on Wild Horse Mesa.

Photograph taken May 29, 2005.

Article records that use this photograph:

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General view of my Wild Horse Mesa plot.

Photograph taken May 29, 2005.

Article records that use this photograph:

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My plot in Frasera albomarginata after the Hackberry Complex Fire

Photograph taken October 15, 2005.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Location of experimental plot on the north face of Wild Horse Mesa

Photographed 28 May 2012.

Article records that use this photograph:

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With Flower stalk

Frasera albomarginata with flower stem.

When Frasera albomarginata flowers it sends up a stem which is 8 to 24 inches (2-6 dm) tall and has very thin leaves aranged around the stem in a whorl.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 100300.

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Worksheet

Frasera albomarginata worksheet.

This chart shows a typical page from my data collection worksheets. I have simulated the writing of field data on the worksheet in a blue color. The worksheet is a report from the Microsoft Access data base in which I keep my data about the species.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 134000.

        images/swealb_worksheet.gif

Yellow 101

Frasera albomarginata Yellow 101 on May 28, 2005.

Photograph taken May 28, 2005.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Yellow 101.

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Yellow 101 in June 2007

Photograph taken 4-Jun-07.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Yellow 101.

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Yellow 101 at Pinto Mountain on 7-Jun-07.

Photograph taken 7-Jun-06.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 20060607050.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Yellow 101.

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Yellow 103

Yellow 103 at Wild Horse Mesa on 7-Jun-06.

Photograph taken 7-Jun-06.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 7-Jun-06 at Wild Horse Mesa.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 14827.

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Yellow 116

Yellow 116 in my plot at Pinto Mountains.

Photograph taken October 15, 2005.

The reddish plants to the right and left are Cordylanthus parviflorus (Ferris) Wiggins.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Yellow 116 at Pinto Mountain on 7-Jun-06.

Photograph taken 7-Jun-06.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 7-Jun-06 at Pinto Mountain,.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 14827.

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Frasera albomarginata Yellow 116 on May 28, 2005.

Photograph taken May 28, 2005.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Yellow 116.

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Yellow 16

Yellow 16 in April 2004

Photograph taken April 22, 2004.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Yellow 116.

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Yellow 201

Yellow 201 at Pinto Mountain on 7-Jun-06.

Photograph taken 7-Jun-06.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 7-Jun-06 at Pinto Mountain,.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 14827.

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Yellow 204

Yellow 204 tries to flower in June 2007

Photograph taken 4-Jun-07.

There is one open flower.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Yellow 204.

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Yellow 204 at Pinto Mountain on 7-Jun-06.

Photograph taken 7-Jun-06.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Yellow 205

Yellow 205 struggles for survival.

Photograph taken 4-Jun-07.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Yellow 205.

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Yellow 205 at Pinto Mountain on 7-Jun-06.

Photograph taken 7-Jun-06.

Article records that use this photograph:

        images/IMGP2382sm.jpg

Yellow 206

Yellow 206 at Pinto Mountain on 7-Jun-06.

Photograph taken 7-Jun-06.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 7-Jun-06 at Pinto Mountain,.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 14827.

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Yellow 207

Yellow 207 just barely hanging on.

Photograph taken 4-Jun-07.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Yellow 207.

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Yellow 207 at Pinto Mountain on 7-Jun-06.

Photograph taken 7-Jun-06.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Yellow 208

Yellow 208 in June 2007

Photograph taken 4-Jun-07.

The little plant just behind the F. albomarginata is an annual Senecio.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Yellow 208.

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Yellow 208 at Pinto Mountain on 7-Jun-06.

Photograph taken 7-Jun-06.

Article records that use this photograph:

        images/IMGP2387sm.jpg

Yellow 209

Yellow 209 at Pinto Mountain on 7-Jun-06.

Photograph taken 7-Jun-06.

Article records that use this photograph:

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Yellow 209 in June 2007

Photograph taken 4-Jun-07.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Yellow 209.

        images/IMGP2596sm.jpg

Yellow 210

Yellow 210 in June 2007

Photograph taken 4-Jun-07.

This specimen was also home to a spider, whose web has captured small grains of sand.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: Yellow 210.

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Yellow 210 at Pinto Mountain on 7-Jun-06.

Photograph taken 7-Jun-06.

Article records that use this photograph:

        images/IMGP2389sm.jpg

Yellow 231

Yellow 231 at Wild Horse Mesa on 7-Jun-06.

Photograph taken 7-Jun-06.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 7-Jun-06 at Wild Horse Mesa.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 14827.

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Yellow 232

Yellow 232 on 7-Jun-06.

Photograph taken 7-Jun-06.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 7-Jun-06 at Wild Horse Mesa.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 14827.

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Yellow 235

Yellow 235 on 7-Jun-06.

Photograph taken 7-Jun-06.

Article records that use this photograph:

  • Field Notes: 7-Jun-06 at Wild Horse Mesa.
  • Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest: 14827.

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Date and time this article was prepared: 4/9/2017 9:17:39 AM