Eastern Mojave Vegetation U. S. Interstate 15  
 

Tom Schweich  

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Topics in this Article:
Montana
Idaho
Utah
Leeds
Nevada
California
Literature Cited
 (No Preface)
 
U. S. / Canada Border
 

Montana

 
 

Sweetgrass

 

Other articles: US I-90 Exit 227  

Junction: US Interstate 90, East of Butte.

Locations: Butte.  

Butte

 

Other articles: US I-90 Exit 219  

Exit 121

Junction:
  • U. S. Interstate 90
  Montana above
Idaho below
 

Idaho

 
 

Pocatello

 

Other articles: U. S. Highway 91 at US I-15  

Jct: US Hwy 91, south past Zenda to Logan, then west back to US I-15.
  Idaho above
Utah below
 

Utah

 

Other articles: US I-84 at I-15  

Tremonton

Jct: I-84

Other articles: U. S. Highway 91 Brigham City  

Brigham City

Junction: US Hwy 91, east to Logan, then north back to US I-15.

A reason to take US Highway 91 as an alternate to Interstate 15 would be to see the spillway of Pleistocene Lake Bonneville into the Snake River drainage. The bedrock threshold that established the Provo shoreline is at Red Rock Pass, while an earlier failed alluvial dam is placed at Zenda.

Locations: Salt Lake City.  

Salt Lake City

 

Other articles: Interstate 80 at US I-15 North  

Junction:
  • U. S. Interstate 80, West.

Other articles: Interstate 80 at US I-15 South  

Junction:
  • U. S. Interstate 80, East.

Other articles: U. S. Highway 6 at I-15 N  

Junction: US Highway 6, east to Colorado.

Locations: Spanish Fork.  

Spanish Fork

 

Other articles: U. S. Highway 6 at I-15 S  

Junction: US Highway 6, west.

Locations: Santaquin.  

Santaquin

 

Locations: Scipio.  

Scipio

 

Other articles: U. S. Highway 50 at US Hwy 50 North  

Junction:
  • U. S. Highway 50, East.

Locations: Holden.  

Holden

 

Other articles: U. S. Highway 50 at US Hwy 50 South  

Junction:
  • U. S. Highway 50, West.

Other articles: Interstate 70 at US I-15  

Junction:
  • U. S. Interstate 70.

Other articles: Utah Highway 21 Beaver  

Beaver

Junction: UT Highway 21, west through Minersville and Milford to the Nevada border near Great Basin National Park and US Highway 50.
  Beaver River basin to the north ...
Beaver Ridge
Parowan Valley to the south.
  Beaver County above
Iron County below

Locations: Parowan Valley.  

Parowan Valley

 
  Junction: Utah Highway 271, access road to Paragonah.

Locations: Paragonah. Red Creek.  

Paragonah

Red Creek exits through the Hurricane Cliffs into Paragonah. On Red Creek, S. L. Welsh made a collection of Frasera albomarginata.

 

Parowan

 

Other articles: Utah Highway 130 at I-15  

Junction: Utah Highway 130, north to Minersville.

Locations: Cedar City.  

Cedar City

 

Other articles: Utah Highway 56 at US I-15  

Junction: Utah Highway 56, West to Nevada.

Other articles: Utah Highway 14 Cedar City  

Junction: Utah Highway 14, East.

Other articles: Field Notes May 31st, Kolob Cyns.
Full Size ImageFort Harmony and the Harmony Mountains across US I-15.  

View of Fort Harmony, and the Harmony Mountains across US Interstate 15.

Other articles: Field Notes May 31st, Kolob Cyns.

Locations: Kolob Canyons, Zion National Park.
Full Size ImageCheryl and Tom at the Kolob Canyons Overlook.  

Overlook in Kolob Canyons, Zion National Park.

Other articles: Field Notes May 31st, Kolob Cyns.
Full Size ImageLooking southwest along US I-15 near Kolob Canyons.  

View southwest toward Saint George along US Interstate 15.

Locations: Browse Area Guard Station.

Species Lists: Frasera speciosa  

Exit 30: Forest Service Road, possibly F. R. 037, up South Fork Ash Creek and Mill Creek to the Browse Area Guard Station, collection locality of Frasera speciosa

Other articles: Blackbrush 406500 Utah Highway 17 Anderson Junction  

Anderson Junction

Junction: Utah Highway 17, South to Toquerville.

Literature Cited:
- Post, Douglas M., 1956.

Other articles: Frasera albomarginata near Italian Spring

Locations: Italian Spring.  

Cross Grapevine Wash.

Grapevine Wash drains Italian Wash, which drains Italian Spring.

There is a collection of Frasera albomarginata from Italian Spring.

Other articles: Oak Grove Road at US I-15  

Exit 23: Silver Reef Road, to Oak Grove Road and the Oak Grove Campground.

Other articles: Frasera albomarginata near Silver Reef near Leeda

Locations: Leeds. Silver Reef.  

Leeds

Site of Silver Reef to the north.

Other articles: Utah Highway 9 at US I-15  

Junction: Utah Highway 9, east to Hurricane and Zion National Park.
  Exit 8: Saint George Blvd., UT Highway 34

Other articles: U. S. Highway 91 at St. George

Locations: Saint George.  

Saint George

 

Other articles: Utah Highway 18 at US I-15 Riverside Drive 10000  

Exit 6:
  • Bluff Street, UT Hwy18, west side of St. George.
  • Riverside Drive, to southeastern Saint George.
  Utah above.
Arizona below.

Other articles: Field Notes 20050530070

Locations: Virgin River.
Full Size ImageVirgin River Gorge Recreation Area, Washington County, Utah  

Virgin River Gorge Recreation Area.

We stopped here for lunch one time and watched some rafters launch their raft, and drift downstream into the gorge.

Other articles: Field Notes in Virgin River Gorge.

Locations: Virgin River.
Full Size ImageVirgin River in its gorge, near the upper end.  

I have driven through the Virgin River Gorge on US I-15 twice in the northeasterly direction, and neither time have I seen a good place to stop for a photograph.

Literature Cited:
- Douglass, John, Norman Meek, Ronald I. Dorn and Mark W. Schmeeckle, 2009.

Locations: The Narrows. Virgin River Gorge.  

The Narrows of the Virgin River Gorge.

As an application of their criteria-based methodology for determining the mechanism of transverse drainage development, Douglass, et al. (2009) determined antecedence as the mechanism for transverse drainage through Virgin River Gorge.

Other articles: Black Rock Mountain Road at US I-15  

Exit 27: Black Rock Mountain Road

Locations: Beaver Dam Mountains. Virgin Mountains.  

Beaver Dam Mountains to the northwest. Vrigin Mountains to the southeast.

Other articles: U. S. Highway 91 Littlefield

Locations: Littlefield.  

Littlefield

 

Literature Cited:
- Comstock, J. P., T. A. Cooper, and J. R. Ehleringer, 1988.

Other articles: Summaries of Literature Patterns of Canopy Development and Carbon Gain  

The road north from Littlefield goes to the Joshua Tree Natural Area in southwestern Utah. I have been unable to find a name for this road. Comstock, Cooper and Ehleringer's (1988) site two for their study of patterns of canopy development and carbon gain is 16 km north of Littlefield within the Joshua Tree Natural Area.
  Arizona above
Nevada below
 

Nevada

 

Other articles: Interstate 15 - Business at I-15S  

Junction: N. Sandhill Blvd., E. Pioneer Blvd., I-15 Business

Locations: Mesquite.  

Mesquite

 

Other articles: Interstate 15 - Business at I-15S  

Junction: W. Mesquite Blvd., Interstate 15 Business

Locations: Bunkerville.  

Bunkerville to the southeast across the Virgin River.

Literature Cited:
- Kartesz, John Thomas, 1988.

Locations: Virgin Mountains. Virgin Peak.  

Virgin Mountains in Clark County, Nevada, to the southeast across the Virgin River.

Other articles: Nevada State Route 170 at US I-15  

Junction: Nevada State Route 170, to Bunkerville and Gold Butte Road.

Other articles: NV State Route 12 at US I-15  

Junction: Nevada State Route 12

Other articles: Nevada State Route 168 at US I-15  

Glendale

Junction: Nevada State Route 168, for Glendale, to Moapa, and US Highway 93 at Coyote Springs.

Other articles: NV State Route 169 at US I-15  

Junction: Nevada State Route 169

Other articles: U. S. Highway 93 at US I-15  

Junction: U. S. Highway 93, North.
 
Las Vegas, North City Limit.

Other articles: U. S. Highway 93 at US I-15 U. S. Highway 95 Las Vegas U. S. Interstate 515 11000  

Junction:
  • U. S. Interstate 515, southeast through Las Vegas to Henderson, Nevada.
  • U. S. Highway 93, south to Kingman, Wickenburg and Phoenix.
  • U. S. Highway 95, north, to Beatty, Tonopah, Fallon, etc., south to Searchlight.

Other articles: Nevada State Route 159 at US I-15  

Junction: Nevada State Route 159 "W. Charleston Blvd."

Locations: Las Vegas.  

Las Vegas

 
  Las Vegas, South City Limit.

Other articles: NV Highway 160 60000  

Junction: Nevada Highway 160, the Blue Diamond Highway, which goes to Blue Diamond, and Pahrump.

Locations: Potosi Mountain.  

The high mountain to the west of U. S. Interstate 15 is Potosi Mountain, considered to be a southern extension of the Spring Mountains.

Other articles: NV Hwy 161 Jean

Locations: Goodsprings. Jean. Sheep Mountain.  

Jean

Junction: NV Hwy 161, to Goodsprings and Sandy Valley

Sheep Mountain, type locality of the Goodsprings Dolomite, is across the valley to the southeast.

Literature Cited:
- Guest, Bernard, Nathan Niemi, and Brian Wernicke, 2007.

Other articles: Glossary hypabyssal

Locations: Devil Peak.  

Devil Peak to the northwest.

Devil Peak is a small (~2.5 km diameter) hypabyssal rhyolite dome that intruded into Paleozoic carbonate strata of the southern Spring Mountains (Guest, et al., 2007). It is also the probable source for megabreccia sheets, pyroclastic deposits, and obsidian rock avalanche deposits that make up the crest of Black Butte. These deposits are evidence for about 30 km of dextral slip along the Stateline Fault System.

Full Size Image
Devil Peak at the south end of the Mesquite Valley

Locations: Primm.
Full Size ImagePrimm, Nevada, as seen from the northeast slopes of Clark Mountain.  

Primm

 

Other articles: Keany Pass Road at Primm  

Junction: Keany Pass Road.
  Nevada above
California below
 

California

 

Other articles: Nipton Road 10000

Locations: Lakeview.
Full Size ImageIvanpah Lake and Primm  

Junction: Nipton Road.

This is the former location of Lakeview, California. Annie Alexander and Louise Kellogg collected here on May 17, 1940. I found the location indicated on a 1939 edition of a AAA highway map.

Other articles: Zinc Mine Road at Mountain Pass

Locations: Mountain Pass.
Full Size ImageView of the Unocal processing plant at the Mountain Pass Rare Earth Mine  

Mountain Pass

The largest known rare earth deposits in the world exist near Mountain Pass Summit. Today, the Molybdenum Corporation of America is processing the highly concentrated rare earth ore, the only remaining productive mining activity in the area.

Prior to 1924, an unpaved road known as Arrowhead Trail, which was oil-treated shortly thereafter, generally followed meandering "dry" streambeds through Mountain Pass and Wheaton Canyon. Between 1933 and 1937, a greatly improved two-lane highway was constructed, which served as U.S. Highway 91 and 466 until 1963.

Locations: Clark Mountain Station.
Full Size ImageLocation of Clark Mountain Station.  

Clark Mountain Station

Annie Alexander and Louise Kellogg stayed at Clark Mountain Station May 12-16, 1939.

Other articles: Kessler Springs Road at Valley Wells Kingston Road Valley Wells

Locations: Valley Wells.  

Valley Wells

No gasoline (May 2000, September 2000). Gasoline (May 2003)

Junction:

  • Kingston Road, north, leads to Excelsior Mine Road and the Kingston Range. This is a good road that ultimately leads to Tecopa Hot Springs on California Highway 127.
  • Kessler Springs Road, south, is one gateway road into the Mojave National Preserve.

Locations: Clark Mountain. Halloran Summit. Yucca Grove.
Full Size ImageClark Mountain, California, from Halloran Summit.  

Halloran Summit

Gasoline and some services available (September 2000). I believe this is the former location of Yucca Grove. It was on the north side of then US Highways 91 and 466, and included an Auto Camp, in addition to gasoline and other services.

Other articles: Halloran Springs Road at US I-15 at Halloran Springs

Locations: Halloran Springs.  

Halloran Springs

No services (September 2000)

Junction: Halloran Springs Road, west to Silver Lake on California Highway 127.

Other articles: California Highway 127 at Baker Kelbaker Road in Baker Tonopah & Tidewater Baker

Locations: Baker.
Full Size ImageThe World's Tallest Thermometer in Baker, CA.  

Baker

Road Junctions at Baker:
  • Kelbaker Road, south is one gateway road into Mojave National Preserve, leading through the Cima Volcanoc Field to Kelso, and then to U. S. Interstate 40.
  • California Highway 127, the southern gateway to Death Valley, north to Shoshone and Death Valley Junction.
Full Size Image
The Mad Greek Restaurant in Baker, California.
   
   
  View of Little Cow Hole Mountain.

The photo is taken from Zzyzx Road, but a similar view can be had from US I-15.

Other articles: Zzyzx Road at US I-15 FAQ Zzyzx

Locations: Zzyzx.
Full Size ImageThe Zzyzx Road exit from Interstate 15  

Junction: Zzyzx Road
  Soda Springs Desert Studies Center

Literature Cited:
- Schoenherr, Allan A, 1992.
Full Size ImageClass at Desert Studies Center.  

I've been privileged to stay here for several classes and field trips. In this photograph, Allan Schoenherr, author of A Natural History of California, leads an early morning field trip to examine traps set along a transect the previous night. For information about the center see, http://biology.fullerton.edu:80/facilities/zzyzx.html

Locations: Soda Mountains.
Full Size ImageSoda Mountains from the shores of Soda Lake.  

Soda Mountains to the north.

Other articles: Arrowhead Trail at Rasor Rd  

Junction: Rasor Road

Literature Cited:
- Laity, June, 2000.
Full Size ImageVentifact on top of Ventifact Hill
Full Size ImageU. S. Interstate 15 looking east toward Baker and Las Vegas from Ventifact Hill  

Ventifact Hill

The easily accessible vertifacts at "Ventifact Hill," east of Afton Canyon, are just a few of the many spectacular examples of sandblasted rocks that are to be found in the east-central Mojave Desert. They have formed in a corridor of wind transport which moved sand from the Mojave River eastward through the Devil's Playground, and ultimately towards the Kelso Dunes. Most of the ventifacts in this region are fossil or relict in nature, attesting to a time of greater sediment availability and possibly higher velocity winds. Today, areas of active ventifact formation are limited to a few hill crests where dune sand is being reworked by bidirectional winds (From the Author's Introduction, Laity, 2000).

Literature Cited:
- Evans, James R., 1962.

Other articles: Eastern Mojave Geology 595110
Full Size ImageThe Cronese "Cat"  

The Cronese "Cat," a falling sand dune on the west side of the Cronese Basin, as seen from US Interstate 15. Evans (1962) studied these sand dunes, and his work is summarized in my article on eastern Mojave geology.

Other articles: Basin Road 50000 Field Notes 200004260090

Locations: Cronese Basin.  

Junction: Basin Road.

Full Size ImageCronese Basin with Cave Mountain.  
The Cronese Basin with Cave Mountain on the south (left) side. The Basin Road overpass over U. S. Interstate 15 can be seen at the extreme left.

Literature Cited:
- Meek, Norman, 2000.

Other articles: Afton Road 12000 Field Notes 20050419080

Locations: Afton Canyon.  

Junction: Afton Road

The history of lakes in the eastern Afton basin is very short compared with most Mojave Desert basins. The basin apparently did not exist prior to the rapid rise of the Cady Mountains in the Middle Pleistocene, as the oldest lacustrine evidence in eastern Afton basin is no older than about 300 ka. Afton area lacustrine sections provide evidence for three major lake events.

The most prominent lake stand occurred during OIS 6 (Illinoian). All of the thick green clays visible in the Afton area are from this lake stand. Some of the clays have gypsum crystals, suggesting that this lake eventually dessicated. The Illinoian lake was followed by a lengthy dry interval probably starting in the Sangamon (OIS 5e).

Next a tufa deposit dated at 80 ka, suggests that an OIS 4 lake reached an elevation of 525 m. Correlable strata are located near Camp Cady.

Finally, there are several beach ridges and tufas at elevation of 542.5 m, show in the photograph at left, that have been reliably dated by radiocarbon methods to between 21.5 and 18 ka. This is slightly above the approximate elevation of the topographic divide into Coyote Basin, suggesting the maximum level of Lake Manix was maintained internally by overflows into Coyote Basin.

Sometime about 18 ka., water overtopped the lowest rim of the Manix basin immediately above Afton Canyon and the water spilled out, removing that part of the canyon above the lake floor in a matter of hours. Since that time the Mojave River has continued to cut Afton Canyon, and the landscape is still adjusting to the rapid base level drop (Meek, 2000)

Full Size Image
Field trip stop on the shore of Lake Manix

Full Size ImageWho is this guy? Why does he keep showing up in my Mojave Desert photos?  
Between Field Road and Afton Road, US I-15 passes through lake beds of Pleistocene Lake Manix.

Other articles: Yermo Road at Field Rd  

Junction: Field Road, access to Field, a station on the Union Pacific, and access to Camp Cady Wildlife Area via Yermo Road.

Locations: Manix.  

Manix Overcrossing, Alvord Mountain Road.

There is no freeway exit here. The nearest exits are Harvard Road to the west and Field Road to the east.

  Camp Cady Wildlife Area

Locations: Camp Cady.
Full Size ImageVicinity of Camp Cady on the Mojave River.  

Camp Cady

Former military fort, guarding the Mojave Road, on the Mojave River about 1 1/2 miles south of US I-15.

Literature Cited:
- Reynolds, Robert E., 2011.

Other articles: Field Notes 23 Apr 2011

Locations: Lime Hill.  

Lime Hill on the north side of the highway.

Lime Hill is made up of Miocene Barstow Formation sediments overlain by a thick gravel sequence.

Full Size Image
Field discussion of the geology in today's field trip.

Literature Cited:
- Laity, June, 2000.

Other articles: Field Notes 20020420070

Locations: Harvard Hill.  

There are many ranches in the Lower Mojave Valley that rely on pumping of groundwater for the crops. The combination of soil disturbance and declining water tables has destabilized the landscape resulting in increased sand movement and dust storms that have been blamed for fatal highway accidents (Laity, 2000).
Full Size Image
Agriculture in the Central Mojave.

Other articles: Harvard Road at US I-15  

Junction: Harvard Road, access to Harvard Hill, east to Camp Cady Wildlife Area, and south across Mojave Valley to Newberry Springs.

Other articles: Field Notes 20020420070

Locations: Harvard Hill.
Full Size ImageClimax vegetation on Harvard Hill.  

Harvard Hill
Full Size Image
US I-15 as seen from Harvard Hill.

Other articles: Minneola Road at US I-15  

Minneola Road

Full Size ImageView of Mojave Valley from Dagget Ridge  
 

Other articles: Calico Road at US I-15  

Junction Road: Calico Road.

Other articles: Daggett-Yermo Road at US I-15  

Junction: Ghost Town Road and Daggett-Yermo Road

Other articles: Ghost Town Road at US I-15  

Junction: Ghost Town Road

Other articles: Fort Irwin Road us US I-15  

Junction: Fort Irwin Road

Other articles: Old California Highway 58 at US I-15  

Junction: Old California Highway 58

Other articles: U. S. Highway 66 at US I-15  

Junction: Main Street, and National Trails Highway, old US Highway 66.

Locations: Barstow.  

Barstow

California city, crossroads for early emigrant trails, railroads and highways in the California Desert, on the Mojave River. Once a small mining center and railroad town in California's Mojave Desert, Barstow is located at the junction of 3 major highways -- Interstate 15, Interstate 40 and State Highway 58. It is centrally located in the western Mojave at the entrance to the Mojave National Preserve and is home of the U.S. Army National Training Center, Marine Corps Logistics Base, NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Network and Burlington Northern-Santa Fe Railroad Yards. Population is 21,500 and elevation is 2,106 feet above sea level

Other articles: U. S. Interstate 40 at Barstow  

Junction: U. S. Interstate 40, east across the Colorado River at Needles, across northern Arizona, New Mexico, and parts east to Wilmington, North Carolina.

Other articles: California Highway 247 at US I-15  

Junction:
  • Barstow Road,
  • California Highway 247

Other articles: California Highway 58 just west of Barstow  

Junction: California Highway 58, west through Mojave and Bakersfield to US Highway 101 at Santa Margarita.

Other articles: Lenwood Road 80000  

Junction: Lenwood Road.

Locations: Mojave River.  

Cross Mojave River.

Other articles: U. S. Highway 66 at US I-15

Locations: Victorville.  

Victorville

Junction: National Trails Highway, old US Highway 66.

Other articles: California Highway 18 at US I-15 N  

Junction: California Highway 18, east to Apple Valley, and Lucerne Valley.

Other articles: California Highway 18 at US I-15 S  

Junction: California Highway 18, west to Palmdale and US I-5 near Gorman

Locations: Antelope Valley. Hesperia.  

To the southeast the Mojave River debouches from the San Bernardino Mountains into Antelope Valley, before making its way north through Victorville.

Locations: Antelope Valley. Hesperia.  

Junction: Phelan Road, Hesperia to the east.

Other articles: U. S. Highway 395 at US I-15  

Junction: U. S. Highway 395.
 

Cajon Pass

 

Other articles: California Highway 138 at Cajon Jct  

Junction: California Highway 138

Other articles: US I-10 10992  

Junction: U. S. Interstate 10, west to Los Angeles, east to San Bernardino.

Other articles: California Highway 78 at US I-15  

Junction: California Highway 78

Locations: San Diego.  

San Diego

 
 

Literature Cited

  A list of all literature cited by this web site can be found in the Bibliography.
  Comstock, J. P., T. A. Cooper, and J. R. Ehleringer. 1988. Seasonal patterns of canopy development and carbon gain in nineteen warm desert shrub species. Oecologia (Berlin). 75(3):327-335. {TAS} [Ecophysiology Lab, Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA]
  Douglass, John, Norman Meek, Ronald I. Dorn and Mark W. Schmeeckle. 2009. A criteria-based methodology for determining the mechanism of transverse drainage development, with application to the southwestern United States. GSA Bulletin. 121(3/4):586-598. {TAS-pdf}
  Evans, James R. 1962. Falling and climbing sand dunes in the Cronese ("Cat") Mountain area, San Bernardino County, California. Journal of Geology. 70: 107-113. {TAS}
  Guest, Bernard, Nathan Niemi, and Brian Wernicke. 2007. Stateline fault system: A new component of the Miocene-Quaternary Eastern California shear zone. GSA Bulletin. 119(11/12):1337-1346. {TAS&pdf}
  Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Nevada, Reno, 1988.. UC Biosciences: QK173.K3 1988a
  Laity, June. 2000. Ventifacts in the Mojave River Corridor and at "Ventifact Hill". pp. 37-39 in Reynolds, Robert E., and Jennifer Reynolds, 2000. Empty Basins, Vanished Lakes: A Field Guide to Afton, Baxter, Tecopa, Shoshone, Pahrump and Kingston. San Bernardino County Museum Association Quarterly. 47(2). Redlands, CA: San Bernardino County Museum Association, 2000. {TAS}
  Laity, June. 2000. The Lower Mojave Valley: Mojave Desert, California: A Destabilizing Aeolian Environment (Abstract). pp. 78-79 in Reynolds, Robert E., and Jennifer Reynolds, 2000. Empty Basins, Vanished Lakes: A Field Guide to Afton, Baxter, Tecopa, Shoshone, Pahrump and Kingston. San Bernardino County Museum Association Quarterly. 47(2). Redlands, CA: San Bernardino County Museum Association, 2000. {TAS}
  Meek, Norman. 2000. The Late Wisconsinian History of the Afton Canyon Area. pp. 32-34 in Reynolds, Robert E., and Jennifer Reynolds, 2000. Empty Basins, Vanished Lakes: A Field Guide to Afton, Baxter, Tecopa, Shoshone, Pahrump and Kingston. San Bernardino County Museum Association Quarterly. 47(2). Redlands, CA: San Bernardino County Museum Association, 2000. {TAS}
  Post, Douglas M. 1956. Studies in the Gentianaceae: Frasera and Swertia of North America. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Berkeley. 1956..
  Reynolds, Robert E. 2011. The Incredible Shrinking Pliocene. The 2011 Desert Symposium. April 2011. {TAS}
  Schoenherr, Allan A. 1992. A Natural History of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. {TAS} 772 p.
If you have a question or a comment you may write to me at: tas4@schweich.com I sometimes post interesting questions in my FAQ, but I never disclose your full name or address.  


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Date and time this article was prepared: 12/14/2014 3:38:47 PM