Eastern Mojave Vegetation

Detailed Area Plant List for Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Jefferson County, United States.

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Edited by Tom Schweich

This list is assembled from personal collections, herbarium vouchers, and published lists. For California, much of the data is provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria as indicated by a single dagger “†.” Their web site is at: (http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/consortium/). For Colorado, much of the data is provided by the Southwest Environmental Information Network as indicated by a double dagger “‡,” which web site is found at (http://swbiodiversity.org). See their respective websites for copyright information and recommended citation formats.

For a complete list of Locations included in this Area List, see the Locations Included section, below.

For a check list, please see: Check List for Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Jefferson County, United States.

Bryophyta

Bryophyte CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue. 2.3 km. northwest of GNIS location of Golden. Upper slope of cut bank, north side of open space. Tom Schweich 2014. 16 Apr 2019. ( Golden ) .

Cupressaceae

Juniperus virginiana L.  Eastern Redcedar. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Tall narrow shrub, to 2 m.; Leaves in 2s, scale-like, margin entire, tip acute, overlapping > ¼ length of next leaf, length of gland < distance to apex; Seed, #1, 4 mm. × 3 mm.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Probable garden escapee. On a cut bank near the north boundary fence of the Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, 1.8 km northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1775. 11 Apr 2018. ( Golden ) .

Anacardiaceae

Rhus trilobata Nutt. var. trilobata.  (Syn: Rhus aromatica Aiton var. trilobata (Nutt.) A. Gray ex S. Watson ) Skunkbush Sumac. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, One shrub, southwest side. Tom Schweich 8/31/2017. .

Apiaceae

Lomatium orientale J.M. Coult. & Rose.  Northern Idaho Biscuitroot. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial, to 20 cm., woody taproot; Leaves, compound, pinnate, 75 mm. × 26 mm. wide, ultimate divisions, ≤3 mm., ≤1 mm. wide, villous, tips, obtuse, (with a very small white “spine”); Inflorescence, compound umbel; Involucel Bracts, glabrous; Flowers, white; Anthers, red; Ovary, glabrous, stylopodium, absent; Fruit, 5 mm. × 3.5 mm. wide, ovate, glabrous, dorsally compressed, lateral ribs winged (Described from Coll. No. 1837, 17 May 2018).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 5/2/2017. .

Asclepiadaceae

Asclepias speciosa Torr.  Showy Milkweed. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Determination tentative. Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. .

Asteraceae

Ambrosia psilostachya DC.  Western Ragweed. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, to 40 cm., woody at base; Leaves opposite below, alternate above, 50 mm. × 22 mm., ovate, pinnately divided; Inflorescence indeterminate, appearing raceme-like, 2 kinds of flowers, pistillate heads many, distal, carpellate heads few, clustered in distal leafy axils; Phyllaries fused into a cup; Receptacle not chaffy; Pappus absent (Described from Coll. No. 1068, 8 Oct 2014).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Northeast sector, just west of the mowed area, among smooth brome. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1748. 31 Aug 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . .

Artemisia dracunculus L.  (Syn: Oligosporus dracunculus (L.) Poljakov ssp. glaucis (Pall. ex Willd.) A. Löve & D. Löve ) Tarragon, Dragon Wort. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Eastern slope adjacent to social trail over the top of the hill. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1754. 31 Aug 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . .

Artemisia frigida Willd.  Prairie Sagewort. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, to 30 cm., woody at base; Stems many; Leaves alternate, 9 mm., pinnately dissected into 7 parts, silvery hairy; Inflorescence raceme-like, indeterminate, heads 1-3 in axils; Heads have only disk flowers, all alike; Involucre of hairy phyllaries; Phyllaries in 2 series, hairy, not gummy or with tips recurved; Receptacle hairy, not chaffy or bristly; Flowers fertile; Pappus absent; (Described from Coll. No. 1067, 8 Oct 2014).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 5/2/2017. . .

Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.  Silver Wormwood. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. Var. ludoviciana if infraspecific names are to be applied. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1753. 31 Aug 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . .

Brickellia eupatorioides (L.) Shinners.  False Boneset. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, to 40 cm.; Leaves, alternate, short-petioled (2 mm.), 48 mm. × 7 mm. wide, lanceolate, tip obtuse, margin entire, glandular-punctate, sparsely strigose; Inflorescence, corymbiform, heads in groups of 4-5; Involucre, 8.5 mm. × 6 mm. wide; Phyllaries, 3+ series, graduated, 2-8.5 mm. × 0.5 mm. wide, prominently veined “longitudinally striate,” margin scarious, tip acuminate to spinulose; Receptacle, epaleate; Disk flowers, #19, corolla, 7 mm., yellow; Pappus, plumose bristles, 6 mm.; Cypsela, many ribs (maybe 10). (Described from Coll. No. 1553, 1 Sep 2016.)

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, On a bank that was formerly cut, unknown whether it was intentionally regevetated or not. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1758. 31 Aug 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . .

Carduus nutans L.  (Syn: Carduus nutans L. ssp. macrolepis (Peterman) Kazmi ) Nodding Plumeless Thistle. Weed: CO DofA, List: B. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Annual, to 55 cm., tap-rooted, branched at base; Leaves, basal, withered at flowering, cauline, alternate, decurrent 40 mm. + blade 75 mm. × 25 mm. wide, pinnately lobed, margins spiny; Inflorescence, single heads on spiny tomentose peduncles 2.5-15 cm.; Phyllaries, many graduated series, 9-20 mm. × 1-3 mm. wide, thick at base, mostly green, purplish at margins, mid-vein prominent, tip spiny; Receptacle, alveolate (honeycombed), flat, bristly; Disk flowers, 25 mm., color purple; Pappus, capillary bristles, 18 mm. (Described from Coll. No. 1517, 24 July 2016.)

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Determination tentative. Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. Colorado Noxious Weed List B. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue. Southwestern slope, probably in the revegetated zone. Tom Schweich 1711. 14 Jul 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . .

Centaurea diffusa Lam.  (Syn: Acosta diffusa (Lam.) Soja' k ) White Knapweed. Weed: CO DofA, List: B. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Biennial/Perennial herb, to 50 cm.; Leaves, cauline, alternate, 30 mm. × 12 mm. wide, pinnately lobed, much reduced and entire above, spine-tipped, margins not spiny; Inflorescence, heads borne singly, flowers of one kind; Involucre, 10 mm.; Phyllaries, 4+ series, graduated, 3.5-10.0 mm., all spine tipped, outer and middle with marginal fringe spines; Receptacle, flat, epaleate, bristly; Disk flowers, inner bisexual, Corolla, tube 7.5 mm. + lobes 3 mm., white; Pappus, 0, or very thin ring of scales. Described from Coll. No. 1233, 20 Jul 2015.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 5/2/2017. . .

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.  (Syn: Breea arvensis (L.) Lessing ) Canada Thistle. Weed: CO DofA, List: B. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Annual, to 70 cm., tap-rooted; Leaves, cauline, alternate, sessile but not obviously decurrent, 85 mm. × 20 mm. wide, margin sinuate, spiny, adaxial thinly tomentose, abaxial tomentose; Inflorescence, panicle(?); Heads, many, 30±, 15 mm. × 8 mm. dia., disk flowers only, dioecious, staminate heads, pappus < corolla, pistillate heads, pappus > corolla; Phyllaries, many (6-7) series, outer 3 mm. × 1.5 mm. wide, inner 15 mm. × 1 mm. wide, dark dorsal ridge, tips, spinulose, reflexed; Receptacle, soft bristles, 10 mm.; Pappus, plumose bristles (Described from Coll. No. 1512, 24 July 2016).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, East end of parcel amid a dense infestation of smooth brome. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1701. 14 Jul 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . .

Cirsium undulatum (Nutt.) Spreng.  Wavy Leaved Thistle. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial thistle, to 30 cm., stout tap root; Stem, leafy, 20 cm.; Leaves, basal and cauline, basal, petiole 25 mm. + blade 180 mm. × 55 mm. wide, oblanceolate, pinnately lobed more than half-way to mid-rib, cauline, reduced above, decurrent 5 mm., 45 mm. × 14 mm. wide, lanceolate, surface, adaxial, thinly tomentose, abaxial, tomentose, margins, spiny; Head, 35 mm. × 40 mm. wide, indented around top of peduncle; Phyllaries, many (7?) series, 13 mm. × 3.5 mm. wide, + robust spine 5-6 mm., body dark dorsal ridge, outer and middle reflexed; Flowers, 1 kind; Disk flowers, 25-36 mm., corolla pink-purple; Pappus, plumose bristles; Cypsela, 5 mm., apical collar unremarkable. (Described from Coll. No. 1460, 27 June 2016).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, in mowed area Tom Schweich 5/2/2017. . .

Ericameria nauseosa (Pall. ex Pursh) G.L.Nesom & G.I.Baird var. graveolens (Nutt.) Reveal & Schuyler.  (Syn: Chrysocoma dracunculoides Pursh [misapplied] , Chrysocoma graveolens Nutt. , Chrysothamnus graveolens (Nutt.) Greene , Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pall.) Britton ssp. graveolens (Nutt.) Piper , E. n. (Pall. ex Pursh) G.L.Nesom & G.I.Baird var. glabrata (Gray) G.L. Nesom & Baird ) CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial shrub, woody at base, to 1 m., sprawling to erect; Stem covered with felt-like tomentum (long hairs infiltrated with resin, must scrape with knife to expose); Leaves, alternate, lance-linear, 70 mm. × 3 mm., not twisted in the manner of some related species, upper surface tomentose, margin entire; Heads discoid (with only disk flowers), cymose at ends of branches, narrowly tubular; Involucre 8 mm., not spiny; Phyllaries in 3 vertical ranks, outer << inner, keeled, some with few short hairs; Receptacles not chaffy, but have some short (<0.5 mm.) appendages between flowers; Flowers #5; Corolla tube (i.e., petals united at base) 7.5 mm. + lobes #5, 1 mm., glabrous throughout; Ovary inferior; Pappus of bristles, 6-7 mm., white; Stamens 5; Anthers connate (united), 2 mm., acute at base; Style 11 mm., branches half-round in cross-section, stigmatic 1 mm. + appendage 2 mm., glabrous inside, uniformly short hairy on outside, tips rounded; cypselae, all similar in shape, 5 mm., short hairy. Not known from California. In Ackerfield (2012), Asteraceae, Key 2, 15a-b, a question of how tomentose the stems and leaves are made keying tricky. Described from Collection No. 1063, 17 September 2014.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. . .

Erigeron divergens Torr. & A. Gray.  Spreading Fleabane. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Annual or short-lived perennial, to 15 cm., tap-rooted, ±spreading hairy throughout, becoming minutely glandular above, hairs multicellular with clear crosswalls; Leaves, basal, absent or withered; cauline, alternate, petiole ±10 mm. + blade ±12 mm. × 2.4 mm. wide, uniformly hairy, somewhat reduced above; Inflorescence, heads borne singly on leafy stems, peduncles spreading or decurved, but cannot be described as “heads nodding;” Involucre, 3 mm. × limb 12 mm.; Receptacle, epaleate; Flowers, 2 kinds; Rays, corolla, 3.5 mm., white fading blue; Disk flowers, corolla, 1.7 mm., yellow; Pappus, short scales and longer capillary bristles, similar on ray and disk flowers; Cypsela, 0.8 mm. (Described from Coll. No. 1489. 13 July 2016).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, West-central part of hill, southwest slope. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1668. 16 Jun 2017. ( Golden KHD ) Tom Schweich 2092. 26 Jun 2019. ( Golden ) . .

Erigeron tracyi Greene.  (Syn: Erigeron cinereus A. Gray , Erigeron colomexicanus A. Nelson , Erigeron divergens Torrey & A. Gray var. cinereus A. Gray ) Running Fleabane. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, 20-25 cm., caudex simple (not stout) non-rhizomatous, hairy throughout, with hairs 0.2-0.4 mm. spreading in all directions, glandular at high magnification; Stem, some with prior year's branches assumed to have been stoloniferous; Leaves, basal and cauline, basal, petiole, to 26 mm. + blade oblanceolate 8-12-20 mm. × 2-4-5.5 mm. wide, short hairy and glandular (especially visible at high magnification), margin entire, tip acute, some withered at flowering time, cauline, ±sessile, reduced or not well-developed above, but up to 32 mm. × 1.8 mm. wide; Peduncle, spreading to descending multicellular hairs with clear crosswalls, slightly pustular (maybe) or glandular at high magnification; Phyllaries, in 2+ ±equal series, but not distinctly imbricate, 3-4.5 mm. × 0.7 mm. wide, lanceolate, green center, light margins, spreading hairy; Receptacle epaleate; Flowers, 2 kinds; Ray flowers, cypsela 0.5 mm. + tube 2 mm. + ligule 4 mm. × 0.3-0.6 mm. wide = 6.5-7 mm. × 0.8 mm. wide, fertile, tip rounded, white & pink fading purple; Disk flowers, yellow; Pappus, ray and disk alike, inner, few capillary bristles, 4 mm., outer, short crown of scales, double pappus not particularly disgnostic in Erigeron. The most common form of E. tracyi is perhaps (speculative) a stabilized, apomictic hybrid between E. flagellaris and E. divergens (FNANM). Described from Coll. No. 1133, 9 Jun 2015 and Coll. No. 1337, 11 May 2016.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, South side of hill, near the informal “bench.” Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1612. 15 May 2017. ( CDA COLO KHD ) . .

Gaillardia aristata Pursh.  Blanketflower. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, to 40 cm.; Leaves, alternate, entire to toothed; Inflorescence, single heads on peduncles 13-18 cm., flowers of 2 kinds; Phyllaries, 2+ series, 17 mm. × 2.7 mm. wide, lance-linear; Receptacle, epaleate, setae, to 10 mm.; Rays, sterile, corolla, 21 mm. × 10 mm. wide, yellow, deeply 3-lobed; Disk flowers, corolla, 7 mm., purple; Pappus of 6+ aristate scales, 4 mm., awn 2×> body. Described from Coll. No. 1205, 12 Jul 2015.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Top of hill, center of parcel. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1665. 16 Jun 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . .

Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh) Britton & Rusby.  Broom Snakeweed. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial, tap-rooted, to 9 cm.; Leaves, alternate, linear, 20 mm. × 1 mm. mm. wide, dotted with embedded oil glands, very few short hairs; Peduncle, 0.5-1.5 mm.; Inflorescence, some flowers with strap-shaped corollas, flowers of two kinds in same heads, Involucre, 3.5 mm. × 2.5-3.0 mm. wide, obconic, not gummy; Phyllary, 2-3 unequal series, inner folded around ovary of ray flowers, dotted with embedded oil glands, tips appressed; Receptacle, epaleate; Rays, #5, yellow; Disk, #4; Pappus, a well-developed crown of scales on both ray and disk flowers; (Described from Coll. No. 144, 3 Oct 1997: keys easily to Gutierrezia sarothrae. However, inner phyllaries are folded around ovary of ray flowers, a character not mentioned in keys or description.)

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Determination tentative. Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. Eastern half of parcel, east slope at edge of smooth brome infestation. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1751. 31 Aug 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . .

Helianthus pumilus Nutt.  Little Sunflower. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, to 40 cm.; Leaves, cauline, alternate, occasionally opposite, then bases conjoined, simple, petiole 7-10 mm. + blade 55-86 mm. × 22-30 mm. wide, lanceolate, flat (not folded), margin, entire to lightly toothed, adaxial, pustular strigose, hairs multicellular, crosswalls clear, abaxial, glandular and strigose; Inflorescence, heads single to few on leafy stems, peduncles to 8-10 cm., hairy, glandular; Involucre, 9 mm. × 16 mm. wide; Phyllaries in 2+ series, similar, 6-10 mm. × 2.0-3.5(4) mm. wide, greene erect, ovate, strigose abaxially, margins ciliate, tip acuminate, not as “stiff” or “tough” as those of Coll. No. 1199; Receptacle, slightly convex, paleate; Disk, 17 mm. wide; Palea, 9 mm., tip, glandular, hairy distally; Flowers, 2 kinds; Ray flowers, sterile, #10-12, corolla, 17-25 mm. × (4)6-9 mm. wide, yellow; Disk flowers, corolla, 4-6 mm., yellow, lobes, #5, 1 mm., yellow, anther appendages reddish-brown; Pappus of few long (2.5-4 mm.) aristate scales; Cypsela, 3.5 mm. × 1.4 mm. wide, quadrangular,not laterally compressed black. Described from Coll. No. 1210, 1426, and 1704.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Determination tentative Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. East-facing slope near center of parcel. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1704. 14 Jul 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . .

Heterotheca villosa (Pursh) Shinners.  (Syn: H. v. (Pursh) Shinners var. nana (A. Gray) Semple , H. v. (Pursh) Shinners var. villosa ) Hairy False Goldenaster. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, to 50 cm.; Leaves, cauline alternate, entire, 1-veined, distal perpendicular to stems, hairs > glands; Heads solitary, with both ray and disk flowers; Phyllaries in 2+ series, unequal, to 7 mm.; Rays, 9 mm.; Pappus double, outer narrow scales ≤ 1 mm. (easier to see on mature fruit), inner bristles, 6.5 mm., white; Fruit, disk 3 mm., hairy.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. Top of hill, center of parcel. Somewhat ambiguous as to var. minor vs. var. nana. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1664. 16 Jun 2017. ( CDA Golden KHD ) . .

Hymenopappus filifolius Hook. var. polycephalus (Osterh.) B.L. Turner.  Many-Headed Fine-Leaved Wooly-White. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, to 60 cm., ±tomentose throughout; Leaves, basal, petiole 35 mm. + blade 75-105 mm. × 30-50 mm. wide, oblanceolate in shape, base conspicuously tomentose, bipinnately dissected to filiform segments, ultimate leaf divisions (8)12-19 mm., cauline, similar, reduced above, #(4)5-8; Inflorescence, heads borne singly on peduncles, 22-45 mm.; Heads, (5)7-16 per stem; Involucre, 8 mm. × 15 mm. wide; Phyllaries, 1-2 series (vague what is a series and what not), 6-7 mm. × 2.5-4.0 mm. wide, inner > outer, green, tomentose, margins chartaceous, tips broad; Receptacle, epaleate, flat; Flowers, 1 kind; Disk flowers, corollas, 3.5 mm., yellow; Pappus, crown of scales, 0.8-1.2 mm.; Cypsela, 3-5 mm., hairy all over, more so on the angles. (Described from Coll. No. 1427, 15 June 2016, and Coll. No. 1504, 13 July 2016.)

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, In a slightly more exposed area on the south side of the hill where there are fewer non-natives and less disturbance. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1663. 16 Jun 2017. ( CDA KHD ) . .

Lactuca serriola L.  Prickly Lettuce. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Annual herb, Stems erect, Leaves basal 0 at flowering, cauline coarsely lobed, margins prickly-toothed, Fruit beak slender, many-ribbed, ~8 adaxial, ~5 abaxial (Described from Collection No. 911, 4 Oct 2012).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Determination tentative Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. Large, against neighbor's fence, maybe getting watered with neighbor's landscaping. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1749. 31 Aug 2017. ( Golden JCOS s.n. KHD ) . .

Liatris punctata Hook.  Dotted Blazing Star. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, to 32 cm.; Leaves, cauline, alternate, 78 mm. × 3.5 mm. wide, gradually reduced above, linear, glandular punctate, margins, entire, revolute, sparsely hairy; Inflorescence, single heads in axils on short pedicels; Involucre, 16 mm. × 7 mm. wide, ±cylindrical; Phyllaries, in 2+ series, inbricate, 14 mm. × 3.8 mm. wide, glandular-punctate abaxially distally, margin, ciliate, scarious, tip acute; Receptacle, epaleate; Flowers, one kind; Disk flowers; Corolla, tube white 8 mm. + lobes purple 2.5 mm.; Pappus, bristles, one series, 10 mm., plumose; Cypsela, 7 mm., hairy. Described from Coll. No. 1264, 29 Jul 2015.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. Northeast section, in deep grasses (mostly smooth brome) and other weeds. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1747. 31 Aug 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . .

Packera plattensis (Nuttall) W. A. Weber & Á. Löve.  (Syn: Senecio plattensis (Packera) Nutt. ) Prairie Groundsel. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, 14 cm., from taprooted caudix, sap not milky; Stem, light green, tomentose, densely so in axils; Leaves, mostly basal and few cauline, alternate, petiole 8 mm., blade 10 mm. × 5 mm. wide, oblanceolate, surface, upper thinly tomentose, lower moderately tomentose, especially the mid-vein, margin, crenulate; Inflorescence, head enclosed by involucre, showy; Heads, #10, pedicels, 12 mm.; Involucre, 7 mm. × 5-6 mm. wide, thinly tomentose; Phyllaries, equal, in 1 series, 5 mm. × 0.7 mm. wide, green, flat; Receptacle, epaleate; Flowers, of 2 kinds; Ray flowers, #10, tube 3 mm. + blade 7 mm., yellow, fertile; Disc flowers, many, tube 4 mm. + lobes 0.5 mm., yellow; Pappus, many, well-developed, bristles, 4 mm., ±equal, Style, 2-branched; Fruit, 1 mm., green, beak-less, glabrous. (Described from Coll. No. 1817, 12 May 2018).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Near social trail just west of the top of hill. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1817. 12 May 2018. ( Golden ) . .

Packera tridenticulata (Rydb.) W.A. Weber & Á. Löve.  (Syn: Senecio tridenticulatus Rydb. ) Three-Tooth Ragwort. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial, to 25 cm., densely tomentose below, thinning above; Leaves, mostly basal, petiole 40 mm. + blade 24 mm. × 7 mm. wide, sparsely shallowly toothed, few cauline, tomentose in the axils, petiole 20 mm. + blade 24 mm. × 4 mm. wide, sparsely shallowly toothed, a few are 3-lobed at tip; Inflorescence, corymbiform, heads #12±, flowers of 2 kinds; Involucre, 6 mm. × 11 mm. wide, bowl-shaped; Phyllaries, 1 series (with little overlap), 4 mm. × 1.2 mm. wide, mostly green, 2+ veins, 1 margin chartaceous; Receptacle, epaleate; Rays, #11±, fertile, tube 2.5 mm. + blade 5.5 mm. × 2 mm. wide, yellow; Disc flowers, yellow; Pappus, capillary bristles, 4.5 mm.; Cypsela, 2.5 mm., glabrous. Described from Coll. No. 1643, 30 May 2017.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Top of hill, among most intact area of native vegetation. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1643. 30 May 2017. ( CS KHD ) . .

Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl.  (Syn: Rudbeckia columnifera Nutt. ) Upright Prairie Coneflower. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, to 50 cm., tap-rooted; Leaves, cauline, to 11 cm. × 3 cm. wide, 1-pinnate, pinnae to 39 mm. × 4 mm. wide, some toothed; Inflorescence, single heads per stem, >> leaves; Involucre, 14 mm. diameter; Phyllaries, 1 series, lanceolate, hairy abaxially; Receptacle, cylindric, paleate; Rays, #5, 17 mm., × 13 mm. wide, elliptic-ovate, sterile, corolla yellow; Disk, cylindric, 20-45 mm. × 9-12 mm. wide; Palea, folded around but not enclosing disk flowers; Disk flowers, many, corolla greenish-yellow; Pappus, short crown of scales; Fruit, compressed, but maybe not strongly, ciliate adaxially(!). Described from Coll. No. 1198, 12 July 2015.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Southeast corner of parcel, between social trails. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1702. 14 Jul 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . .

Scorzonera laciniata L.  (Syn: Podospermum laciniatum (L.) De Candolle ) Cutleaf Vipergrass. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, to 40 cm., Leaves, basal and cauline, 7-20 cm., pinnately dissected into near-linear lobes, reduced but still well-developed above; Inflorescence, few heads on long stems; Phyllaries, in ±3 series, graduated, 4-13 mm. × 1.5-9 mm. wide, margins chartaceous, tips dark; Receptacle, epaleate; Flowers, ligulate (1 kind, 5-lobed), corolla yellow; Pappus of plumose bristles, Introduced, Europe (Old French: viper) (Described from Coll. No. 1399, 8 June 2016).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. Western section of parcel, which has possibly been revegetated after adjacent home construction. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1623. 15 May 2017. ( CDA KHD ) . .

Senecio integerrimus Nutt.  Columbia Ragwort. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon. Probably var. exaltatus (Nutt.) Cronquist if infraspecific names are to be applied.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Just a few plants on the eastern slope, in dense smooth brome. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.73 km. north northeast of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1847. 18 May 2018. ( Golden ) . .

Senecio spartioides Torr. & A. Gray.  (Syn: Senecio multicapitatus Greenm. ex Rydb. ) Broomlike Ragwort. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, to 50 cm.; Leaves, basal, unknown, cauline, alternate, 90 mm. × 3 mm. wide, narrowly oblanceolate, reduced above to 30 mm. × 1 mm. wide, variously hairy in axils and ±lower surface; Involucre, 12.5 mm. × 6 mm., narrowly campanulate, bractlets not prominent; Phyllaries, 2 series? or 1 series with 2 forms? outer, 7.5 mm. × 0.7 mm. wide, all green, inner, 7.5 mm. × 1.3 mm. wide, centrally green with margins chartaceous, all tips dark; Receptacle, epaleate; Rays, fertile, corolla, tube 5 mm. + blade 9 mm. × 2 mm. wide, yellow, lobes 3; Disk flowers, corolla, 6 mm., yellow; Pappus, 1 series of fine capillary bristles, 5 mm.; Cypsela, 4 mm., 5-angled, dark gray, “hirtellous” throughout (not just the angles). Described from Coll. No. 1298, 23 Sep 2015.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Near top of hill, in some of the least-disturbed native vegetation. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1755. 31 Aug 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . .

Solidago missouriensis Nutt.  Missouri Goldenrod. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, to 35-40 cm., generally glabrous throughout; Leaves, basal, unknown, cauline, alternate, petiole 10-45 cm. + blade 100 mm. × 21-22 mm. wide, reduced above, oblanceolate, margin, sparsely scabrous proximally, serrate distally, glabrous, prominently 3(5)-nerved; Inflorescence, crowded panicle; Pedicels, 1 mm.; Bracts, #2, 1.8 mm.; Involucre, 3.0-4.5 mm. × 3-5 mm. wide, obconic; Phyllaries, 2+ series, 2.2-3.5 mm. × 1 mm. wide, graduated, green, margin chartaceous, veins 1; Receptacle, epaleate, conic; Flowers, 2 kinds; Rays, #12, fertile, tube 2 mm. + blade 2.2 mm., yellow; Disk flower, #12, tube 2.8 mm. + lobes 0.7 mm. = 3.5 mm., yellow; Pappus, capillary bristles, 3.0 mm.; Cypsela, 0.4-0.6 mm., glabrous-sparsely hairy. Described from Coll. No. 1255, 26 Jul 2015, and Coll. No. 1519, 29 Jul 2016. Distinguished in part by its glabrous characters and presence of 3 prominent nerves on leaves. Jepson eFlora notes that S. missouriensis Nutt. Is misapplied to S. spectabilis (D. C. Eaton) A. Gray. FNANM states that, in the west, it can similar to smaller plants of S. spectabilis (13 Sep 2014).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Eastern half of parcel, east slope at edge of smooth brome infestation. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1752. 31 Aug 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . .

Solidago nana Nutt.  Baby Goldenrod. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, to 40 cm., short white hairy throughout; Leaves, basal, withered (late in season), cauline, alternate, 95 mm. × 9-10 mm. wide (includes 15 mm. winged petiole? below) veins, 1 (others discontinuous), margin hairs similar to surface hairs, i.e., not ciliate, gradually reduced and sessile above; Inflorescence, heads numerous and small, involucre, 5.5 mm.; Phyllaries, 3-4 series, imbricate, graduated, 3-4 mm., veins 1; Receptacle, epaleate, (scales? to 0.5 mm.); Flowers of 2 kinds; Rays, few (3-4), fertile? (stigma visible but cypsela not as developed as those of disk flowers), corolla, 6 mm., yellow; Disk flowers, few (6-8), corolla, 4 mm., yellow; Pappus, capillary bristles; Cypsela, 1.5 mm., short hairy. Described from Coll. No. 1292, 9 Sep 2015.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, On a bank that was formerly cut, unknown whether it was intentionally regevetated or not. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1759. 31 Aug 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . [ Similar to Coll. No. 1752. ] .

Symphyotrichum falcatum (Lindl.) G.L. Nesom.  (Syn: Aster falcatus Lindl. ) White Prairie Aster. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, to 40 cm., scabrous throughout; Leaves, basal, unknown, cauline, alternate, sessile, 32 mm. × 2.7 mm. wide, linear-oblanceolate, entire, tip spinulose, gradually reduced above; Inflorescence, extended panicle; Involucre, 5 mm. × 4.5 mm. wide; Phyllaries, in 4 graduated series, 3-5 mm. × 0.8 mm. wide, chartaceous below, green above, elliptical, tip spinulose except innermost; Receptacle, epaleate; Flowers of 2 kinds, Rays, pistillate, corolla, tube 2.5 mm. + laminae 5 mm. × 1.3 mm, white spatulate; Disk flowers, corolla, 4 mm., some rose to purple, some yellow; Pappus, capillary bristles, 4.5 mm.; Cypsela, 1 mm., hairy. Described from Coll. No. 1300, 23 Sep 2015.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue. Mid-slope in southwestern section, probably not in the revegetated zone. Tom Schweich 1712. 14 Jul 2017. South-central portion of parcel, but still above the most disturbed areas. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1760. 31 Aug 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . .

Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.  (Syn: T. laevigatum (Willd.) DC. ) Common Dandelion. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue. 2.3 km. northwest of GNIS location of Golden. Top of hill, sunny slope south of social trail. Tom Schweich 2013. 16 Apr 2019. ( Golden ) . .

Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze.  Hopi Tea Greenthread. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, to 55 cm., woody at base, glabrous, eglandular; Leaves, opposite, pinnately lobed, lobes filiform, 30-35 mm.; Inflorescence, 1-3 heads per stem on 10 cm. peduncles; Phyllaries, 2 dimorphic series, without bristles or spines, outer, 2 mm. × 1.3 mm. wide, spreading, inner, 8 mm. × 3 mm. wide, connate 4.7 mm, tips erect; Receptacle, paleate, flat; Paleae, 7 mm. × 2 mm. wide, mid-vein greenish-brown, otherwise chartaceous; Flowers of 1 kind; Disc flowers, corolla, tube 3 mm. + throat 1 mm. + lobes 2 mm., color yellow with red-brown veins; Pappus, 2 retrorsely barbed awns; Cypsela, 3.8 mm. (Described from Coll. No. 1483, 6 Jul 2016.)

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue. Center of parcel, top of hill. Tom Schweich 1707. 14 Jul 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . .

Tragopogon dubius Scop.  (Syn: Tragopogon dubius Scop. ssp. major (Jacq.) Vollman ) Yellow Salsify. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Peduncle inflated distally, flowers yellow, phyllaries in 1 overlapping series, ligules 3-5 mm. shorter than phyllaries.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Common, scattered throughout parcel; these from top of hill. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1616. 15 May 2017. ( CDA COLO CS KHD ) .

Boraginaceae

Cryptantha virgata (Porter) Payson.  (Syn: Oreocarya virgata (Porter) Greene ) Miner"s Candle. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Observed on CoNPS field trip, coordinates approximate. Tom Schweich 6/10/2018. . .

Lithospermum incisum Lehm.  Narrowleaf Stoneseed. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial … cleistogamic flowers present, in fruit usually with recurved pedicels. Flowers monomorphic.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, One plant seen. Tom Schweich 5/2/2017. Uncommon, scattered throughout parcel; these from top of hill. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1617. 15 May 2017. ( COLO KHD ) . .

Mertensia lanceolata (Pursh) DC.  Prairie Bluebells. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, with spreading-ascending branches to 20 cm.; Stem, glabrous; Leaves, basal and cauline, basal, petiole 55 mm. + blade 50 mm. × 12.5 mm. wide, lanceolate, distinct lateral veins, papillate adaxially, margin, entire, appressed ciliate; cauline, sessile, 40 mm. × 4 mm. wide, without distinct lateral veins, papillate adaxially, margin, entire, appressed ciliate; Inflorescence, panicle; Calyx, tube 1.5 mm. + lobes 2-3 mm.; Corolla, tube 4 mm. + throat 4.5 mm., limb 5 mm., deciduous, blue, small tufts of hairs at base of throat; Stamens, #5, inserted, attached at throat; Filaments, 2 mm.; Anthers, 2.3 mm., yellow; Ovary, 0.7 mm. × 1.3 mm. wide, partially fused to calyx; Style, 7.0-7.5 mm., single, ±≥anthers; Stigma, simple; Fruit, #4 nutlets, 1.7 mm. × 1.5 mm. wide. (Described from Coll. No. 1906, 31 May 2018.)

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue. North-central portion of open space on northeast slopes. Tom Schweich 1595. 2 May 2017. ( CS KHD ) .

Brassicaceae

Alyssum simplex Rudolphi.  (Syn: Alyssum minus Rothm. , Alyssum parviflorum Fisch. ex M.Bieb. ) European Madwort. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Annual, tap-rooted, to 12-30 cm., stellate hairy throughout (typically doubly branched and 8-pointed); Stem branched at base, ascending; Leaves basal, withered at flowering, appear compound, cauline, alternate, 14-28 mm. × 3.5-5.0 mm., oblanceolate, margin entire, tip acute, sessile or vaguely short-petioled; Inflorescence not bracted; Pedicels, in fruit, 4.5 mm.; Sepals, 4, 2 mm. × 0.7 mm. wide, deciduous in fruit; Petals 2.9-3.0 mm., yellow fading white,clawed, entire to tip slightly notched; Stamens, 2.5-2.6 mm.; Filaments, 2.3 mm., winged proximal 1.5-1.8 mm., not toothed; Style persistent, 1.3 mm., few hairs at base; Fruit round, 3.5-5.0 mm. × 5.6 mm. wide, margin entire, compressed parallel to the replum, hairy, hairs thinning as fruit matures; Ovules, 4 (most keys and descriptions say 2 when they give a specific number, but the genus is described as having 1-2[4] ovules). (Described from Clyde Golden, 25 Jun 2011, Coll. No. 1090, 30 Apr 2015, and Coll. No. 1367, 24 May 2016).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. East-facing slope. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1613. 15 May 2017. ( COLO Golden KHD ) . .

Camelina microcarpa Andrz. ex DC.  Little-Podded False Flax. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Annual, terrestrial, herb, 45 cm. to 80 cm. tall; Stem, erect, mostly single, some branched mid-stem, proximal, simple and forked hairs, distal, glabrous; Leaves, basal, absent or withered, cauline, #11-25, sessile, distal basally lobed 1.2 mm., 26-62 mm. × 6.5-10 mm. wide, reduced above, lanceolate, hairs simple and forked; Inflorescence, to 220 mm. × 35 mm. wide, not bracted, not one-sided; Flowers, radial; Pedicels, 4-8 mm., glabrous; Sepals, #4, rows, #1, 2.4-2.7 mm. × 0.8-1 mm. wide, ovate, color, green, margin chartaceous, tip purplish, abaxially hairy; Petals, 3.7-4.0 mm. × 0.7-0.9 mm. wide, oblong-spatulate, margin, entire, color, yellow; Stamens, #6, 3 mm.; Filaments, plain or maybe very narrowly winged; Anthers, 0.7 mm., ovate; Ovary, 1.8 mm. × 0.9 mm. wide; Style, 0.8 mm.; Stigma, capitate, 0.4 mm. wide; Fruit (mature), pedicels, 15 mm., 3 × than fruit, spreading, 5 mm. × 3.2-3.5 mm. wide, wider above middle, somewhat flattened, parallel to replum, coriaceous, short-winged (or strong-margined), valve mid-vein apparent but not prominent; Seeds, many, 1.0 mm. × 0.7 mm. wide, angled, papillate (Described from Coll. No. 1876 and 1883).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, One plant, next to Rhus trilobata Tom Schweich 5/25/2019. . .

Physaria montana (A. Gray) Greene.  (Syn: Lesquerella montana (A. Gray) S. Watson ) Mountain Bladderpod. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial, rosette to 5 cm. dia., flowering stems to 14 cm., not in alpine environment, eastern slope, hairs stellate throughout; Leaves, basal, rosette, 9 mm. × 6.5 mm., ovate, entire, petiole, 12 mm., cauline, 10 mm., appearing secund, narrowly oblanceolate; Inflorescence, exceeding leaves; Pedicels, in fruit, ascending; Fruit, 5 mm. × 2 mm., ovate-elliptic, hairs stellate, apex entire (not notched, although these immature). (Described from Coll. No. 1081, 23 Apr 2015).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Top of hill, among most intact area of native vegetation. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1642. 30 May 2017. ( CDA KHD ) . .

Sisymbrium altissimum L.  Tall Tumblemustard. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Annual terrestrial herb, to 50 mm.; Roots, tap; Stem, erect, branched above, leafy, few simple hairs; Leaves, basal and cauline, basal: compound, (petiole short if at all present), 120 mm. × 28 mm. wide, oblong, pinnately divided, few simple hairs on petioles, mid-ribs, and margins; cauline: nearly sessile, lanceolate, very finely pinnately divided; Flowers, radial; Sepals, #4, rows, 1, 3.5-4.5 mm. × 0.8 mm. wide, small hood-shaped appendage at tip; Petals, 7 mm. × 1.5 mm. wide, margin, entire, color, yellow; Stamens, tetradynamous, 3.6, 5.2 mm.; Filaments, plain; Anthers, 2 mm.; Stigma, (weakly) 2-lobed; Fruit, 17 mm. × 0.5 mm. wide, ascending, glabrous. Described from Coll. No. 1845, 18 May 2018.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, In the formerly mowed area, along the northeast side. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.73 km. north northeast of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1845. 18 May 2018. ( Golden ) . .

Thlaspi arvense L.  Field Penny Cress. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Annual, tap-rooted, to 50 cm., generally glabrous throughout; Stem, single, or few-branched proximally; Leaves, basal and cauline, basal, withered at flowering, cauline, sessile, auriculate, oblong, 30 mm. × 5-9 mm. wide, reduced distally, dentate; Inflorescence, raceme; Sepals, 2 mm. × 1 mm. wide, ovate; Petals, 3-3.5 mm. × 1 mm. wide, spoon-shaped, margin entire, white; Stamens, 2 mm.; Anthers, 0.5 mm.; Fruit, pedicels 10-15 mm., ascending to spreading, glabrous, fruit obovate, 10 mm. × 8 mm., wide, margin winged, tip notched 1 mm.; Ovules, biseriate, #many (Described from Coll. No. 1324, 4 May 2016).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Along the north fence. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.73 km. north northeast of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1846. 18 May 2018. ( Golden ) .

Cactaceae

Coryphantha missouriensis (Sweet) Britton & Rose.  (Syn: Escobaria missouriensis (Sweet) D.R.Hunt ) Missouri Foxtail Cactus. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. One stem, another with a double stem 1 m. s. Tom Schweich 4/28/2018. Two stems. Tom Schweich 4/28/2018. Complex of stems. Tom Schweich 4/28/2018. One stem, another with 2 stems 1 m. sw, another with a double stem 1 m. e. Tom Schweich 4/28/2018. . .

Coryphantha vivipara (Nutt.) Britton & Rose.  (Syn: Escobaria vivipara (Nutt.) Buxb. , Escobaria vivipara (Nutt.) Buxb. var. deserti (Engelm.) D. R. Hunt , Escobaria vivipara (Nutt.) Buxb. var. rosea (Clokey) D. R. Hunt , Mamillaria vivipara (Nutt.) Haw. ) Beehive Cactus. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, in mowed area Tom Schweich 5/2/2017. . .

Echinocereus viridiflorus Engelm.  (Syn: Echinocereus chloranthus (Engelm.) J.N.Haage , Echinocereus viridiflorus Engelm. var. chloranthus (Engelm.) Backeb. ) Nylon Hedgehog Cactus. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. . .

Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm.  Twistspine Pricklypear. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial cactus, not distinctly mat-forming; Stem, segments, 90 mm. × 60 mm. wide, flattened, bluish-green, areoles, #5-6 per diagonal row, spaced 8-14 mm., proximal, glochids only, distal, glochids and spines, spines, #2, #1, 28 mm., erect, brown to tan at tip, #1, 12 mm., recumbent, nearly white; Flowers, petals, 36 mm. × 22 mm. wide, wedge-shaped, color yellow; Stamens, many, 18 mm., yellow; Style, 20-24 mm., stout; Stigma, lobes, #6-8, 3 mm.; Fruit, 38 mm. × 17 mm. wide, narrow at base, fleshy, green, areoles, mix of glochids and short spines. (Described from Coll. No. 1948, 15 June 2018.)

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 5/2/2017. West-central portion of parcel, likely in the revegetated area, but unlikely to be a revegetated species. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1948. 15 Jun 2018. ( Golden ) . .

Opuntia polyacantha Haw.  Plains Pricklypear. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 6/16/2017. Determination tentative Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. .

Campanulaceae

Campanula glomerata L.  Dane's Blood. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, 40-50 cm., spreading by underground stems; Leaves, basal, withered at anthesis, cauline, alternate, sessile, lanceolate-oblong, 110 mm. × 41 mm. wide, reduced above, setose, crenate; Inflorescence, appears head-like, but flowers in crowded axils subtended by a reduced leaf 35 mm. × 20 mm. wide; Bract, leaf-like, 6 mm. × 2 mm. wide, triangular, strigose, crenulate, ciliate; Calyx, tube 4 mm. + lobes 7 mm., narrowly acuminate, sparsely ciliate; Hypanthium, 3.5 mm.; Corolla, tube 11 mm. + lobes 5 mm., color purple; Stamens, #5, included; Filaments, scale-like, white, hairy; Anthers, 4 mm., yellow. Ovary, inferior; Style, 12 mm.; Stigma, 3-lobed (Described from Coll. No. 1982, 15 July 2018).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Garden escapee from the front yard of 633 Alaska Street, where this plant is cultivated in the front yard. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.73 km. north northeast of the GNIS location of Golden. Along the north fence. Tom Schweich 1982. 15 Jul 2018. ( Golden JCOSs.n. ) .

Cannabaceae

Celtis reticulata Torr.  (Syn: Celtis laevigata Willd. var. reticulata L. D. Benson ) Net-Leaved Hackberry. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Determination tentative, made from unique leaf galls. Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. Just off the top of the hill to the south. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1798. 6 May 2018. ( Golden ) .

Caprifoliaceae

Lonicera tatarica L.  Tatarian Honeysuckle. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Shrub to small tree, 2 m.; Leaves, opposite, 24 mm. × 17 mm. wide, simple, entire, petiole, 1.5 mm.; Peduncle, 10-13 mm.; Flowers, in pairs, subtended by bracts, bisexual; Bracts, small, at base of calyx; Calyx, tube 2.0 mm. + lobes 0.5-1.0 mm.; Corolla, tube 12.5 mm. + lobes 12 mm., pink, hairy inside; Ovary, inferior; Stamens, #5, exserted, versatile; Style, #1, exserted, hairy; Stigma, capitate. Disturbed places, native to Siberia, sporadic escapee from cultivation, berries possibly toxic. (Described from Coll. No. 1591, 2 May 2017.)

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Hughway 93 and Washington Avenue. Several plants near the east end of the parcel, close to North Ford Street. Tom Schweich 1591. 2 May 2017. ( CDA COLO CS KHD ) Same plant as Coll. No. 1591. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue. Several plants near the east end of the parcel, close to North Ford Street. Tom Schweich 1705. 14 Jul 2017. ( CS KHD ) .

Caryophyllaceae

Gypsophila paniculata L.  (Syn: G. paniculata L. var. p. ) Baby's Breath. Weed: CO DofA, List: Watch. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1666. 16 Jun 2017. Colorado Noxious Weed Watch List. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue. Northwest central part of parcel, off the top of the hill, getting close to the neighbors' fences. Tom Schweich 1710. 14 Jul 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . .

Saponaria officinalis L.  Bouncingbet. Weed: CO DofA, List: B. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 7/14/2017. . .

Stellaria media (L.) Vill.  (Syn: Alsine media L. ) Common Chickweed. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Annual; Stem decumbent, internode hairs in a line; Stipules 0; Sepals ±free, 4 mm, 6 mm in fruit, glandular-hairy, margins translucent; Flower white, petals present, 2-lobed, ~¼ to base; Fruit spheric (Described from Collection No. 804, 4-Apr-2012).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, in mowed area Tom Schweich 5/2/2017. .

Chenopodiaceae

Chenopodium album L.  Lambsquarters. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, East end of parcels, adjacent to social trail over top of hill. Var. album if infraspecific names are to be applied. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1750. 31 Aug 2017. ( Golden KHD ) .

Convolvulaceae

Convolvulus arvensis L.  Field Bindweed. Weed: CO DofA, List: C. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Colorado Noxious Weed List C. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1672. 16 Jun 2017. ( CDA KHD ) .

Dipsacaceae

Dipsacus fullonum L.  Fuller's Teasel. Weed: CO DofA, List: B. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. .

Elaeagnaceae

Elaeagnus angustifolia L.  Russian Olive. Weed: CO DofA, List: B. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Near fence, no flower/fruit, yard debris, Castilleja, Artemisia frigida, Acroptilon. Tom Schweich 5/2/2017. Along the north fence. Spreading, one mature plant, one young plant to the west. Colorado Noxious Weed List B. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1645. 30 May 2017. ( CDA CS Golden KHD ) .

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia myrsinites L.  (Syn: Tithymalus myrsinites (L.) Hill ) Myrtle Spurge. Weed: CO DofA, List: A. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Few plants in disturbed area. Tom Schweich 3/4/2018. In mowed area of smooth brome. Northeast corner of parcels, in an area of much smooth brome that has been mowed by neighbors to the north. Tom Schweich 1745. 31 Aug 2017. ( JCOS s.n. KHD ) .

Fabaceae

Astragalus Milkvetch. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Purple flower, no fruit, leaves basal, silvery hairy. Tom Schweich 5/2/2017. . .

Astragalus agrestis Douglas ex G. Don.  Purple Milkvetch. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Coll. No. 1398, 8 June 2016, characters observed: Perennial herb, to 15 cm., caulescent, basifixed straight appressed hairy throughout; Leaves, cauline, alternate, stipules, 5 mm., connate opposite petiole, compound, odd-pinnate, leaflets, #13, 8 mm. × 2 mm. wide, straight hairy, tip round; Inflorescence, upright ovoid cluster; Calyx, tube 4.5 mm. + lobes 3.5 mm. = 8 mm., mix of white and black hairs; Flowers, zygomorphic, 11 mm., blue-purple; Style, 7 mm., persistent; Legume, immature, 5 mm. × 1.7 mm. wide, stipe very short (0.4 mm.?), dense long straight soft hairy (Described from Coll. No. 1398, 8 June 2016).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Determination tentative. Tom Schweich 5/6/2018. Just a few plants on the eastern slope, in dense smooth brome. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.73 km. north northeast of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1848. 18 May 2018. ( Golden ) Upper eastern slope, above the thickest infestation of smooth brome, near social trail. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.73 km. north northeast of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1849. 18 May 2018. ( Golden ) . .

Astragalus crassicarpus Nutt.  Groundplum Milkvetch. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, to 15 cm., Leaves, compound, stipules free, petiole, 15 mm., blade, 85 mm. × 22 mm. wide, leaflets, #23, 11 mm. × 3.5 mm. wide, terminal leaflet, not a tendril, hairs, simple, appressed, straight, Calyx, tube 8 mm. + lobes 3 mm., hairs, simple, some light and some dark, Flower, zygomorphic, white to blue, banner, 24 mm., glabrous, wings, claw, 10 mm., blade, 10 mm., keel, 20 mm., tip, obtuse; Style, persistent, 8 mm.; Fruit, 17 mm. × 7.3 mm. wide, oblong, glabrous (Described from Coll. No. 1851, 18 May 2018).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 6/15/2018. Only one plant found in this parcel, so far. Top of hill, beside social trail. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1851. 18 May 2018. ( Golden ) Southeast side of hill, immediately adjacent to social trail. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1943. 15 Jun 2018. ( Golden ) . .

Astragalus drummondii Dougl. ex Hook.  Drummond's Milkvetch. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, to 35 cm., caulescent; Stem, rachis, abaxial leaf surfaces, and calyx spreading hairy, hairs basifixed; Leaves, cauline, compound, odd-pinnate, stipules, 9 mm., free, entire, leaflets, 23-27, 19 mm. × 5.5 mm. wide, wavy hairy abaxially and marginally, ±glabrous adaxially; Calyx, tube 6 mm. + lobes 3 mm. = 9 mm., green at base to cream color at tube and lobes, few dark wavy hairs, persistent; Corolla, 17 mm., color cream, banner, 17 mm., wings, claw 6 mm. + blade 9 mm., tip obtuse, keel, 14 mm., tip purple, Ovary, 9 mm.; Style, 4 mm., glabrous, persistent; Fruit, stalked 12 mm. + body 26 mm. × 4 mm. wide, pendant, smooth, glabrous, not inflated. Described from Coll. No. 1141, 9 Jun 2015.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Western portion, southwest slope. Expected because it is native to Golden, but collected in an area possibly revegetated following adjacent home construction 2006-2007. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1621. 15 May 2017. ( CDA CS Golden KHD ) . .

Astragalus flexuosus G. Don.  Flexible Milkvetch. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, decumbent to ascending stems, to 30-50 cm., not vine-like, caulescent, appressed basifixed hairy throughout; Leaves, cauline, compound, odd pinnate, leaflets ±15-17, terminal leaflet not modified into tendril, stipules, entire, not lobed at base, not connate (slightly) connate on side opposite to petiole, leaflets, 11-12 mm. × 2-4 mm. wide, oblong, notched, terminal leaflet 7 mm. < uppermost pair 8 mm.; Inflorescence, raceme, arising from axils; Calyx, 4 mm., tube >> lobes,not inflated in fruit; Flower, zygomorphic, banner, 9 mm., wings (2), 9 mm., keel, 5.5 mm., <wings, not beaked; Style, 3 mm., glabrous, persistent; Fruit, 9 mm. × 4.5 mm., substipitate 1 mm., not inflated, compression lateral sparse appressed hairs. Described from Coll. No. 1148, 15 Jun 2015, and Coll. No. 1384, 1 June 2016.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Top of hill, center of parcel. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1949. 17 Jun 2018. ( Golden ) . .

Colutea arborescens L.  Bladder Senna. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial shrub, to 2 m., woody below; Stem erect, unarmed; Leaves compound, odd-pinnate (with terminal leaflet); Leaflets, 11, 16 mm. × 12 mm. wide, notched at tip, glabrous above, sparsely appressed hairy below; Inflorescence a raceme, axillary, 9± flowers; Calyx, 5-merous, 5 mm. × 6 mm. dia., appressed hairy; Flowers, 19 mm., yellow, with dark markings; Banner, 10 mm.; Wings, 10 mm. × 4 mm., reduced in comparison to Lupinus; Keel, fully enclosing stamens and pistil, glabrous; Stamens, 10; Filaments, 9 fused, 1 free; Style, recurved; Fruit, inflated, bladder-like, 50 mm. × 22 mm., walls papery, color reddish fading to brown, base stalk-like; Seeds, reniform, flattened, 6 mm. × 4 mm. × 2 mm., brown, surface smooth; native to southern Europe (Described from Coll. No. 1066, 6 Oct 2014).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue. North-central area near fence with neighbor's discarded yard waste. Tom Schweich 1594. 2 May 2017. ( CDA CS Golden KHD ) . .

Medicago sativa L.  Alfalfa. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Western section of parcel, which appears to have been revegetated following residential constriction in 2006-2007. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1646. 30 May 2017. ( CDA CS KHD ) . .

Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.  Yellow Sweet Clover. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 2088. 26 Jun 2019. ( Golden ) . .

Oxytropis lambertii Pursh.  Purple Locoweed. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, acaulescent, mostly dolabriform hairs (one arm much shorter than the other); Leaves, basal, pinnately compound, leaflets #17, terminal leaflet present; Inflorescence, raceme, peduncle 30 cm., pedicels very short; Bracts, 7 mm. × 1.6 mm. wide, green, lanceolate; Calyx, tube 7 mm. + lobes 4 mm. = 11 mm.; Flower, zygomorphic, various shades of magenta to purple, banner, 17 mm., wings, 16 mm., keel, 13 mm., blades united enclosing stamens, recurved beak; Stamens, #10, diadelphous (Described from Coll. No. 1385, 1 June 2016).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Southwest slope near top of hill. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1615. 15 May 2017. ( COLO Golden KHD ) . .

Psoralidium tenuiflorum (Pursh) Rydb.  (=Pediomelum tenuiflorum (Pursh) A. N. Egan) Slimflower Scurfpea. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Southeast edge, in the approximate location of the city water line. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1703. 14 Jul 2017. ( Golden KHD ) .

Geraniaceae

Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Her. ex Aiton.  Redstem Stork's Bill. Weed: CO DofA, List: C. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Scattered around the parcel, in areas where the native or exotic vegetation is not too thick. Colorado Noxious Weed list C. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1622. 15 May 2017. ( CDA CS KHD ) .

Grossulariaceae

Ribes cereum Douglas.  Wax Currant. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, In a weedy area near the fence north-central portion of parcel. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1618. 15 May 2017. ( Golden KHD ) .

Lamiaceae

Lamium amplexicaule L.  Henbit. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Small group of plants in the area that has previously mowed by neighbors, northeast corner of parcel. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1776. 11 Apr 2018. ( JCOSs.n. ) .

Loasaceae

Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) Torr. & A. Gray.  (Syn: Nuttallia nuda (Pursh) Greene ) Bractless Blazing Star. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue. Top of Hill, center of parcel. Tom Schweich 1731. 31 Jul 2017. ( KHD ) .

Malvaceae

Malva neglecta Wallr.  Common Mallow. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Large plant at the edge of the area mowed by neighbors. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Northeast corner of parcels. Tom Schweich 1746. 31 Aug 2017. ( Golden KHD ) .

Nyctaginaceae

Mirabilis linearis (Pursh) Heimerl.  (Syn: Oxybaphus linearis (Pursh) B. L. Robinson ) Narrowleaf Four O'Clock. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, to 1 m.; Stem, ascending through brush, glabrous below; Leaves, cauline, alternate, sessile, 90 mm. × 5 mm. wide, linear; Involucre, 15 mm., hairs with pale crosswalls; Flowers, 3 per involucre; Fruit, 4 mm. × 2.2 mm., obovate, ribs 4, hairy. Described from Coll. No. 1273, 30 Jul 2015.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, One plant seen in bloom. Tom Schweich 7/31/2017. .

Onagraceae

Oenothera suffrutescens (Ser.) W. L. Wagner & Hoch.  (Syn: Gaura coccinea Pursh , Gaura glabra Lehm. ) Linda Tarde. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Herbaceous perennial, to 60 cm.; Stipules absent; Leaves alternate, 25 mm. x 5 mm., lanceolate, few toothed; Inflorescence straight, open; Bracts 2-3 mm.; Buds erect; Sepals fused to tip in bud, all coming free, reflexed, 6 mm., not persistent after flowering; Hypanthium 6 mm.; Petals entire; Stamens 8, < stigma; Anthers maturing in unison with stigma; Ovary at flowering > distal internode (ergo infl. "open"); Stigma 4-lobed; Fruit 7 mm., stalk-like base 0, erect, fusiform, gradually wider at middle, puberulent, indehiscent; Seeds few, 2 mm., glabrous, not winged (Decribed from Coll. No. 317, keyed 15 Dec 2012).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, West side of hill, on the edge of a path that the neighbors have mowed into the smooth brome. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1671. 16 Jun 2017. ( KHD ) .

Orobanchaceae

Castilleja integra A. Gray.  Wholeleaf Indian Paintbrush. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, to 30 cm.; Stem, tomentose throughout; Leaves, cauline, sessile, 90 mm. × 5 mm., narrowly lanceolate, entire; Bracts, 36 mm. × 11 mm., elliptic to oblanceolate, entire, green at base to red-orange; Calyx, tube 25 mm. + cleft below 10 mm. = 35 mm., cleft above 8 mm., light green to tips red-orange; Corolla, 36 mm. Described from Coll. No. 1143, 15 Jun 2015.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Top of hill in the remnant short-grass prairie found there. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1614. 15 May 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . .

Orobanche fasciculata Nutt.  (Syn: Aphyllon fasciculatum (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray ) Clustered Broomrape. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 6/15/2018. .

Plantaginaceae

Linaria dalmatica (L.) Mill.  (Syn: Linaria dalmatica (L.) Mill. ssp. dalmatica , Linaria genistifolia (L.) Mill. ssp. dalmatica (L.) Maire & Petitm. ) Dalmatian ToadFlax. Weed: CO DofA, List: B. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Determination tentative Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. Top of hill, among best area of native vegetation. Colorado Noxious Weed List B. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1641. 30 May 2017. ( CDA KHD ) . .

Penstemon secundiflorus Benth.  Sidebells Penstemon. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, to 40 cm., caulescent, eastern slope; Leaves, opposite, well-spaced, sessile, 66 mm. × 23 mm. wide, lanceolate, entire, glaucus; Inflorescence, axis glabrous, not glandular-hairy, flowers mostly on one side of the stem; Calyx, 5 mm., with purple-tinged sinus tissue; Flowers, 18 mm., magenta; Stamens, inserted; Staminode, 1.8 mm. wide at tip, hairy; Anther, sacs, glabrous on side opposite dehiscence. (Described from Coll. No. 1120, 28 May 2015.)

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Common in less-disturbed and less-invaded areas near the top of hill. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1639. 30 May 2017. . .

Penstemon virens Pennell ex Rydb.  Front Range Beardtongue. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial terrestrial herb, of eastern slope and Front Range, ascending 16-30 cm. from horizontal rooting stem; Stem proximally glabrous to finely pubescent to finely pubescent medially, (supposedly in lines but not clearly so to me) becoming gland-tipped hairs distally; Leaves, “basal” and cauline, glabrous, “basal,” crowded around sprouts from horizontal stems, petiole, 20-30 mm., + blade, 30-35 mm. × 7-13 mm. wide, ovate to oblanceolate, entire, tip acute to mucronate, puberulent adaxially, cauline, opposite, petioled 8 mm. to sessile distally, 20-30 mm. × 4-8 mm. wide, lanceolate, margin entire to finely irregularly serrate distally; Inflorescence, thryse or cymose(?), 35-100 mm. × 30 mm. wide, 8 to 12 flowers per node, leaves and bracts much reduced, glandular; Pedicels, 3 mm., with gland-tipped hairs; Calyx, tube 2 mm. + #5 lobes 2-3 mm. = 4-4 mm., margins green, tips acute; Flowers, zygomorphic, parts in 5s, not spurred; Corolla fused at base, purple to blue-violet, 10-15 mm., lobes 2-3 mm., limb 10 mm., outer surface glabrous to glandular-pubescent; Stamens, #4, 10 mm., included, Staminode #1, yellow-orange, not enlarged at tip, hairy in terminal 2 mm.; Anther, 1.2 mm., purple, sacs papillate; Ovary, 2 mm. × 1.5 mm. wide, ovate, dark purplish-brown; Style, 9 mm.; Stigma, simple; Fruit, capsule. (Described from Coll. Nos. 1107, 1121, and 1910.)

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Common in less-disturbed and less-invaded areas near the top of hill. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1640. 30 May 2017. ( CS KHD ) .

Polygonaceae

Eriogonum alatum Torr.  (Syn: Pterogonum alatum (Torr.) Gross ) Winged Buckwheat. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. . .

Eriogonum arcuatum Greene.  (Syn: Eriogonum jamesii Benth , Eriogonum jamesii Benth var. flavescens S. Watson ) Baker's Buckwheat. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue. Center of parcel, top of hill. Tom Schweich 1708. 14 Jul 2017. ( KHD ) . .

Eriogonum effusum Nutt.  Spreading Buckwheat. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, woody at base, to 30 cm., Stem, floccose; Leaves, cauline, petiole 5 mm. + blade 20-25 mm. × 2-6 mm. wide, generally tomentose, except less so adaxially, ±flat, margin entire, , withered at flowering; Inflorescence, open cyme; Involucre, 1 per node, 2 mm., tomentose; Perianth, without stipe; Tepals, 1.8 mm., white to pink, described as yellow in Ackerfield (2015) and FNAMN; Achene, unknown. (Described from Coll. No. 1507.1, 22 Jul 2016, Coll. Nos. 1537 & 1541, 18 Aug 2016.)

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. Center of parcel, slight southwest slope. (Most of the flowers will be found in the fragment packets.) Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1756. 31 Aug 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . .

Rumex crispus L.  Curley Dock. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Determination tentative. Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. .

Ranunculaceae

Delphinium carolinianum Walter ssp. virescens (Nutt.) R.E. Brooks.  (Syn: Delphinium virescens Nutt. ) Carolina Laskspur. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Only one plant seen. Tom Schweich 5/30/2017. Top of hill where there is less disturbance and fewer invasive weeds. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1661. 16 Jun 2017. ( Golden KHD ) .

Rosaceae

Prunus pensylvanica L. f.  (Syn: Cerasus pensylvanica (L. f.) Loiseleur ) Pin Cherry. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Small tree, 1.5-3.0 m., partially leafed out while in bloom; Branches, unarmed, peeling white, dotted; Leaves, petiole, 7-12 mm., very sparsely short hairy, some have a pair of glands at base of leaf, blade, ovate to elliptic, 25 mm. × 20-23 mm. wide, pinnately veined, margin, toothed, small glands on distal edge of each tooth, veins of young leaves sometimes hairy abaxially; Inflorescence, flowers in clusters of 5-8 on pedicels to 14 mm.; Hypanthium, 3.5 mm × 3 mm. wide, glabrous inside; Sepals, 1.5 mm., glabrous, few (2) glands on margins; Petals, 5-7 mm., white; Stamens, #12-25; Ovary, superior, glabrous; Style, #1, 4 mm., emerges from top of ovary; Fruit, unknown (Described from Coll. No. 1354, 20 May 2016 and Coll. No. 1619, 15 May 2017).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Near fence, north edge of parcel. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1619. 15 May 2017. ( CDA KHD ) . .

Prunus virginiana L.  Chokecherry. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

The most useful distinction is between chokecherries found east of the Rocky Mountains, var. virginiana and those found from the mountains westward, var. demissa. Plants of the High Plains show intergradation between those of the Rockies and those of the East.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Determination tentative Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. Determination tentative Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1611. 15 May 2017. ( COLO KHD ) . .

Rosa arkansana Porter.  Prairie Rose. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Low-growing perennial, to 20 cm.; Stem, straight slender unequal prickles, present on new growth; Leaves, alternate, compound, leaflets (7-8) 9, 20 mm. × 9 mm. wide, serrate, teeth dark-tipped, unclear whether there is glandular exudate, sparsely villous on both sides; Flowers, in clusters of 2-5; Sepals, 16 mm. × 3 mm. wide, abaxial, stalked glandular, adaxial, glandular hairy; Petals, 28 mm. × 21 mm. wide, color pink (Described from Coll. No. 1456, 27 June 2016).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, South side, near top of hill, scattered among grasses. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1670. 16 Jun 2017. ( Golden KHD ) .

Santalaceae

Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. ssp. pallida (A. DC.) Piehl.  (Syn: Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. var. pallida (A. DC.) M. E. Jones ) Pale Bastard Toadflax. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. Uncommon, but widespread where not crowded out by invasive exotics. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1620. 15 May 2017. ( CDA KHD ) .

Scrophulariaceae

Verbascum thapsus L.  Common Mullein. Weed: CO DofA, List: C. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. .

Violaceae

Viola nuttallii Pursh.  Nuttall's Violet. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, in mowed area Tom Schweich 5/2/2017. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue. On the west slope, near top of hill. Tom Schweich 1593. 2 May 2017. ( CDA CS KHD ) .

Vitaceae

Parthenocissus vitacea (Knerr) Hitchcock.  Woodbine, thicket creeper. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue. Near neighbors' fences, north central part of parcel. Tom Schweich 1706. 14 Jul 2017. ( Golden KHD ) .

Agavaceae

Yucca glauca Torr.  Soapweed Yucca. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. .

Anthericeae

Leucocrinum montanum Nutt. ex A. Gray.  Star Lily. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Hughway 93 and Washington Avenue. At the top of the hill with Opuntia, Commandra, Castilleja, and Linaria. Tom Schweich 1592. 2 May 2017. ( CS KHD ) .

Commelinaceae

Tradescantia occidentalis (Britton) Smyth.  Prairie Spiderwort. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Three plants seen here. Tom Schweich 5/15/2017. In a slightly more exposed area on the south side of the hill. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1662. 16 Jun 2017. ( Golden KHD ) .

Cyperaceae

Carex inops L.H. Bailey ssp. heliophila (Mack.) Crins.  (Syn: C. pensylvanica Lam. ssp. heliophila (Mack.) W. A. Weber ) Sun Sedge. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial herb, to 16 cm., prior year leaves to 23 cm.; Rhizome, 5-10(12) cm.; Culm, 11.5 cm. × 0.6 mm., ±triangular, but obscured by white striations at least when dry; Leaves, 12 cm. × 1.5 mm., ±flat, some folded ≤30°.; Inflorescence, multiple spikes, all approximate, 1-2 pistillate spike(s) below, 1 staminate spike above; Bracts, lowest, blade 8 mm., sheath 4.5 mm., papery; Pistillate spike, peduncled 1.0-1.3 mm., 9 mm., brown (not black); Staminate spike, terminal, 12-16 mm., ovoid (not cylindric), brown (not black); Scales, >perigynum body; Perigynum, pubescent on faces, margin ciliate; Achenes, unknown. Described from Coll. No. 1079, 23 April 2015, and Coll. No. 1568, 3 Apr 2017.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Three collections of the Sun Sedge bearing the suffixes .0, .1, and .2 were made this day relatively near to each other. Scattered across the top and southwest slope of the hill with somewhat intact mixed-grass prairie, 1.76 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1797. 28 Apr 2018. ( Golden ) Three collections of the Sun Sedge bearing the suffixes .0, .1, and .2 were made this day relatively near to each other. Scattered across the top and southwest slope of the hill with somewhat intact mixed-grass prairie, 1.76 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1797.1 28 Apr 2018. ( Golden ) Three collections of the Sun Sedge bearing the suffixes .0, .1, and .2 were made this day relatively near to each other. Scattered across the top and southwest slope of the hill with somewhat intact mixed-grass prairie, 1.76 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1797.2 28 Apr 2018. ( Golden ) .

Iridaceae

Iris L.  Horticultural Iris. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. Few plants near north fence. Tom Schweich 4/11/2018. .

Liliaceae

Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill.  Common Grape Hyacinth. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue. North-central area, near neighbor's fences. Tom Schweich 1596. 2 May 2017. ( CDA CS KHD ) . .

Narcissus L.  Horticultural Daffodil. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Few plants near north fence. Tom Schweich 4/11/2018. .

Poaceae

Grass Family. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Same grass as Coll. No. 1774. Revegetated section in southeast portion of parcel, 1.7 km northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1773. 4 Mar 2018. ( Golden ) Revegetated section in northwest portion of parcel, 1.8 km northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1774. 4 Mar 2018. ( Golden ) . .

Aegilops cylindrica Host.  (Syn: Cylindropyrum cylindricum (Host) Á.Löve ) Jointed Goat Grass. Weed: CO DofA, List: B. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Colorado Noxious Weed List B. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1946. 15 Jun 2018. ( Golden ) . .

Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.  Crested Wheat Grass. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. Top of hill, near social trail. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1856. 18 May 2018. ( JCOSs.n. ) . .

Andropogon gerardii Vitman.  Big Bluestem. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial, to 85 cm., clumped, rhizomes unknown; Leaves, blade and sheath differentiated; Sheath, 11 cm., open; Ligule, membraneous (though surrounded by hairs), 3 mm., auricles 0; Blade, soft, flat, 27 cm., hairy near ligule; Inflorescence, 80 mm., > leaves, 1-2 per stem, in 5-6 digitate branches, spikelets many; Rachis, soft bristles on margins and at nodes; Disarticulation at nodes of rachis; Spikelets in pairs, Sterile spikelet, 7 mm., pedicel 4.5 mm.; Fertile spikelet, Florets #1, Glumes, awns 0, ±equal, lower keeled, upper flattened and grooved; Lemma, 6 mm., membraneous, rolled, glabrous, tip 2-forked, awn, #1, 13 mm., bent, twisted, attached on back; Stamens, 3; Anthers, yellow; Ovary, glabrous; Stigma, feathery. (Described from Coll. No. 1060, 28 Aug 2014).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 11/1/2017. . .

Bouteloua gracilis (Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths.  (Syn: Chondrosum gracile Kunth ) Blue Grama. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Northeast corner of parcels, in an area of much smooth brome that has been mowed by neighbors to the north. Tom Schweich 1744. 31 Aug 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . .

Bromus L.  Brome. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 2090. 26 Jun 2019. ( Golden ) . .

Bromus inermis Leyss.  (Syn: B. inermis Leyss. ssp. inermis ) Smooth Brome. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial grass to 1 m., rhizomatous; Leaves, sheath, 8-11 cm., closed, ligule, <1 mm., membraneous, blade, 12-17 cm × 0.5 cm., flat, soft, with a distinguishing fold, usually described as an “M” or a “W” that is difficult to see when dry; Inflorescence, panicle, 15 cm. × 4 cm. wide, multiple 1° branches per node, mostly on one side of rachis; Spikelets, 1 per node on 1° and 2° panicle branches, 15-24 mm. × 5 mm. wide, laterally compressed, 2-6 florets per spikelet; Glumes, 2, keeled, glabrous, lower, 7-8 mm., veins 1 upper, 8-10 mm., <lowest floret; Rachilla, sparsely hairy on abaxial side, extended beyond uppermost floret or not; Callus, small, glabrous; Lemma, 11-12 mm., veins, 3, 5, 7, obvious, tip bifid, some awned; Awn (when present), 1.0-1.6 mm., arising near tip of lemma; Palea, 9 mm., veins ciliate. (Described from Coll. No. 1113, 26 May 2014, and Coll. No. 1219, 16 Jul 2015).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. Northeast corner of the parcel, where there is nearly a monoculture of smooth brome with a few Canada thistle. Some of the neighbors have taken to mowing this area. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1660. 16 Jun 2017. ( CDA Golden KHD ) . .

Bromus japonicus Thunb.  Japanese Cheat Grass. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Coll. No. 1207, 13 Jul 2015, characters observed: Annual grass, to 40 cm.; Leaves, sheath, 60 mm. closed + 12 mm. open, pilose (but not densely so), ligule, membraneous, + some hairs, blade, hairy; Inflorescence, panicle, >leaves; Pedicel, 20 mm.; Spikelets, 1-3 per panicle branch, 22 mm. × 6 mm. wide, elliptical, drooping; Glumes, #2, <lowest floret, lower, 4.5 mm., veins 3, upper, 5.5 mm., veins 5; Rachilla, short hairy; Callus, glabrous; Florets, #12, 2-ranked, closely held hiding rachilla; Disarticulation between florets; Lemma, 8 mm. × 4 mm. wide, margin, hyaline, 0.5 mm., tip bifid, awn, #1, 5-12 mm. long, mid-spikelet awns longest, flattened at base, not twisted, attached near bifid tip. Described from Coll. No. 1207, 13 Jul 2015.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Far western, revegetated, part of parcel. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1669. 16 Jun 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . .

Bromus tectorum L.  (Syn: B. tectorum L. var. glabratus Spenn. ) Cheat Grass. Weed: CO DofA, List: C. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Annual grass, to 30 cm.; Leaves, Sheath, 50 mm., closed proximal ⅔, open distally, Ligule, membraneous, 1 mm.; Blade, 60 mm.; Inflorescence, open panicle, rachis and pedicels short hairy, Spikelets, 1 per node, 15 mm., laterally compressed; Glumes, 2, sparsely hairy, margins scarious, lower, 2.3 mm., veins indistinct, upper, 4.5 mm. Callus, glabrous, very short, Florets, ±6, Lemma, 6.5 mm., 0.7  from mid-vein to margin, back rounded, sparsely hairy, tip, forked, teeth 1 mm., awned from near tip, awn, 5-7 mm.; Anthers, 3, 0.4 mm. Described from Coll. No. 1112, 26 May 2015. Dimensions are small for B. tectorum, perhaps because of the early date of collection.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. Top of hill. Colorado Noxious Weed List C. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1644. 30 May 2017. ( CDA CS KHD ) . .

Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.  (Syn: Bouteloua dactyloides (Nutt.) J.T. Columbus ) Buffalo Grass. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, At intersection of social trails, southeast corner. Tom Schweich 4/16/2019. Northeast section where the neighbors have mowed the smooth brome. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1673. 16 Jun 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . .

Dactylis glomerata L.  Orchard Grass. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial grass, to 1.0-1.2 m., not rhizomatous, basal or subterranean internodes not swollen; Stem herbaceous; Leaf, Sheath open and closed observed, published descriptions are roughly equally divided as to whether the sheath is open or closed, Ligule membraneous, 5 mm.; Blade, differentiated from sheath, base not constricted, soft, 25 cm. × 0.7 cm. wide, not sharp-pointed; Auricle, rounded, <1 mm., generally described as 0; Infloresence exceeding leaves, 13 cm., panicle, well developed, erect, 1° branches open, branching 4° or 5°; Spikelets not enclosed in a bur-like involucre, not subtended by bristles or long silky hairs, similar throughout plant, all on one side of rachis, crowded in dense clusters, on 2°-4° panicle branches 1 per node, axis few hairy, some spikelets appear to be infertile; Glumes, 2 < lowest floret, lower, 3.5 mm, smaller and thinner than upper, 6 mm., keeled, glabrous to ciliate on keel, else sparsely hairy; Florets not modified into bulblets 4+ per spikelet , have feathery stigma-like material but no ovary (immature?), uppermost vestigal floret not club-shaped rudiment (as seen in Melica); Lemma lowest largest, 5 mm., reduced above, keeled, line of hairs on keel, 5 veins, tip forked, awn 1.0-1.5 mm.; Palea light green with 2 veins forked at tip. Described from Collection No. 815, 9 May 2012, Alameda County, CA and Coll. No. 1111, 26 May 2015, Jefferson County, CO.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. . .

Elymus canadensis L.  Canadian Wildrye. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial grass, to 0.7-1.2 m., non-rhizomatous; Culm, cauline nodes hidden by sheath; Inflorescence, terminal spike, 20 cm. × 1.5 cm. wide, ±erect to curving to drooping; Rachis, mostly glabrous, internodes, 5 mm.; Spikelets, sessile, 2 per node, 15 mm. × 5 mm. wide (excluding awns), ascending; Glumes, #2, 21-25 mm., nearly subulate, flattened and slightly broadened above base, indistinct body 8-10 mm. × 1 mm. wide + awn 14-15 mm., veins 5?, entire, scabrous; Florets, #5, bisexual; Rachilla, short hairy; Callus, glabrous; Lemma, 10-13 mm., veins 5, rounded, hairy, awns, #1, 22-35 mm., curving when dry; Palea, 9.5 mm.; Stamens, #3, 4 mm. Described from Coll. Nos. 1237 and 1699.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 7/19/2018. . .

Elymus elymoides (Raf.) Swezey.  (Syn: Elymus longifolius (J. G. Sm.) Gould , Sitanion hystrix (Nutt.) J. G. Sm. ) Squirreltail Grass. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial grass to 50 cm., clumped; Inflorescence, bilateral spike; Rachis, internodes, 6.4 mm., breaking apart when mature; Spikelets, 2 per node; Glumes, #2, subulate, 62-65 mm.; Florets, #3, lowest 2 fertile, upper sterile; Lemma, 10 mm. + awn 50 mm., veins, #5, converging; Palea, 9 mm., 1 of 2 veins slightly extended as bristle. Variety brevifolius if infraspecific names are to be applied. Described from Coll. No. 1717, 28 July 2017.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 6/26/2019. . .

Festuca idahoensis Elmer.  Idaho Fescue. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial, to 50 cm, distinctly tufted or clumped; Roots fibrous; Stem herbaceous; Internodes hollow; Leaf blade and sheath differentiated, soft; Sheath open; Ligule membraneous, 0.5 mm.; Blade narrow, rolled inward; Inflorescence 1-2, 8-9 cm., > leaves, branching evident, panicle, spikelets many; Spikelets similar, 1/node, 1° and 2° branches, many flowered, 10 mm.; Florets, 4-6 per spikelet, bisexual (1-2 staminate, 3-4 staminate and pistillate, 5-6 staminate and ?pistillate); Glumes lower 4.5 mm, upper 3.0 mm, lower < lowest floret, veins 3-9, awns 0; Axis sparsely hairy, not extended beyond upper floret; Lemma 5 mm., rolled, veins 5, outer faint, tip entire, awns 1, 2.0-2.5 mm, straight, attached at tip; Palea < lemma, keel glabrous, margin glabrous, Anthers 3, 2 mm.; Ovary glabrous (Described from Coll. No. 822, 30 May 2012).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Revegetated northeast corner of parcel, between social trail and neighborhood fencing. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1947. 15 Jun 2018. ( JCOSs.n. ) . .

Festuca saximontana Rydb.  (Syn: Festuca saximontana Rydb. var. purpusiana (St.-Yves) Fred. & Pavlick ) Rocky Mountain Fescue. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial, 30-60 cm., tufted; Rhizomes, 0; Culm, very sparse scabrous below inflorescence; Leaves, mostly basal, cauline leaves on flowering culms, Sheath, 75 mm., open, minutely scabrous; Ligule, membraneous, 0.2 mm., auricles, 0.5 mm., short hairy distally, Blade, 70 mm. × 1 mm. wide, rolled, minutely scabrous; Inflorescence, 1 per culm, >leaves, 50-115 mm. × 8-9 mm. wide, panicle, 2-3 branches, 2.5 mm.; Rachis, finely scabrous; Spikelets, many, similar, 9 mm. × 2-3.5 mm. wide, 1 per node; Compression, unremarkable; Disarticulation, between florets; Glumes, #2, pubescent only on distal veins and margins, lower, 2.5-3 mm., veins 1; upper, 3.5-4 mm., veins 3, tip mucronate, awns, #0, margins, entire; Florets, #4-6± per spikelet; Axis, few short hairs; Lemma, 4-4.5 mm., >glumes, lanceolate, membraneous, veins #5, obscure but best seen at base, awn, #1, 1.5-2.5 mm., straight, from tip of lemma; Palea, 4 mm., <lemma, glabrous veins green, tip bifid; Anthers, 1.5-2.0 mm. Described from Coll. No. 1667, 16 Jun 2017, and Coll. No. 1853, 18 May 2018.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Western edge of hill, adjacent to social trail. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1667. 16 Jun 2017. ( Golden KHD ) Fine light-green perennial bunch grass beside trail, just east of crest of hill. Not really native to Golden; probably a grass used in revegetation project. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.74 km. north northeast of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1850. 18 May 2018. ( Golden ) Revegetation bunch grass. Top of hill, beside social trail. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1853. 18 May 2018. ( JCOSs.n. ) . .

Hesperostipa comata (Trin. & Rupr.) Barkworth.  (Syn: Stipa comata Trin. & Rupr. ) Needle and Thread. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial, 50 cm., clumped, nonrhizomatous; Roots, fibrous; Stem, herbaceous; Leaves, blade and sheath differentiated; Sheath, 100-120 mm., open ≥½, glabrous; Ligule, membranous, length 3.7 mm., lacerate into 2 equal parts, auricles 0; Blade, 60 mm., involute, glabrous; Inflorescence, 1 per culm, >leaves, panicle, 200 mm. × 30 mm. wide; Rachis, not extended, somewhat scabrous throughout; Spikelets, many, similar, borne singly; Compression, unremarkable; Disarticulation, above the glumes; Glumes, lower, 23-34 mm., veins #3, upper, 23-29 mm., veins #5, awl-shaped, rounded, membranous, ±equal, tip, very narrow, not awned; Florets, 1 per spikelet; Callus, 4.5-50 mm., sharp, straight hairs 1.0-1.5 mm., color tan; Lemma, 9.5-10.0 mm., rolled, indurate, straight hairy 0.5 mm., color white-tan, veins #3(?), awns, #1, 125-160 mm., twisted and short straight hairy proximal 45 mm., bent, scabrous distally; Palea, 9 mm., ±lemma, few white hairs on mid-vein; Stamens, #3; Anthers, 6.5 mm. (Described from Coll. No. 1890, 28 May 2018).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1944. 15 Jun 2018. ( Golden ) Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1945. 15 Jun 2018. ( Golden ) . .

Nassella viridula (Trin.) Barkworth.  (Syn: Stipa viridula Trin. ) Green Needlegrass. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial grass, 70-100 cm., clumped, non-rhizomatous; Stem, herbaceous; Leaves, cauline, sheath, 17 mm., ligule, 3 mm., membraneous, collar with few hairs at sides, blade, to 30 cm., convolute; Inflorescence, 1 per culm, panicle, 20-25 cm.; Rachis, lightly scabrous, not extended beyond upper spikelet; Compression, unremarkable; Spikelets, 1 per node; Florets, 1 per spikelet, bisexual; Glumes, 2, 8-9 mm., ±equal, rounded, membraneous, colorless, exc. 3 green veins, tip, short (2 mm.) hair-like awn; Disarticulation, above the glumes, Florets, 1 per spikelet; Callus, short; Lemma, 5-6 mm. × 1.2 mm. wide, <glumes, green, hairy, <1 mm., indurate, enclosing grain, awns, #1, 20-25 mm., twisted, bent, short hairy (±0.2 mm.); Palea, 1.5-2.0 mm., <lemma, membraneous, glabrous; Stamens, #3. Described from Colls. No. 1146, 1652, and 1698.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 2091. 26 Jun 2019. ( Golden ) . .

Poa pratensis L.  (Syn: P. agassizensis B. Boivin & D. Löve ) Kentucky Bluegrass. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial grass, to 40-75 cm.; Roots fibrous; Rhizomes slender, 0.8 mm. dia., to 12 cm.; Culm, not bulbous at base, not strongly flattened; Nodes; Leaf blades and sheath differentiated, soft, Sheath, 85-130 mm., open at least ½; Auricles 0; Ligules membraneous, ≤1  to 1.8 mm.; Blade, lower involute or folded, upper flat, 25-75 mm. × 3 mm. wide, margin, scabrous, tip ±prow-shaped (or not); Inflorescence 1 per culm, terminal, panicle, 70-130 mm. × 33 wide, cm., pyramidal, branches scabrous; Rachis, not extended, glabrous; Spikelets, 4-5 mm., similar throughout plant, singly pedicelled on 2°-5° branches; with both pistillate and staminate florets; Compression lateral; Disarticulation above the glumes; Glumes, keeled, keels, glabrous, scabrous, or with small line of stiff hairs distally, lower, 2.0-2.5 mm., <lowest lemma, veins 1 or 3, upper, 2.5-3.0 mm., veins 3; Florets, #(2)3-4 per spikelet (eliminates Agrostis), mostly bisexual; Rachilla, extends 1 mm. above upper floret, not hairy; Callus long cobwebby hairs (distinctive!), or with some cobwebby hairs, but cobwebby hairs also elsewhere; Lemma 2.7-3.0 mm., >glumes, glabrous, veins 3-5, likely 5 as the 2 outer veins that are visible are quite near margins, short hairy or keel and margins cobwebby proximally, margins scarious, tip broadly acute, Awns 0; Palea 2.3-3 mm., ≤lemma, green, esp. on veins, keel scabrous; Anthers #3, 1-1.6 mm., purple (streaked); Stigma feathery, white. Described from Coll. No. 470 & 860, Mono County, CA, and Coll. No. 1118, 1420 & 1889, 28 May 2018, Jefferson County, CO. Subspecies of P. pratensis are not recognized in Colorado (Weber&Wittmann 2012, Ackerman 2015).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Likely planted here as part of a revegetation project. Top of hill, beside social trail. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1854. 18 May 2018. ( Golden ) . .

Poa secunda J. Presl ssp. secunda.  (Syn: P. sandbergii (Thurb.) Benth. Ex Vasey ) Sandberg Bluegrass.. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial, to 50 cm., not rhizomatous; Internodes, hollow, glabrous; Sheath, 60 mm., open; Ligule, membranous, 4 mm., auricles, 0.2-0.3 mm.; Blade, 20-37 mm. × 2 mm. to 1 mm. wide, flat, tip folded and fused (prow-shaped), mid-rib and margins sparsely scabrous; Inflorescence, 1 per culm, >leaves, panicle, 80 mm. × 11 mm. wide, 1-5  branches, 3-7 mm., spikelets, many; Rachis, sparsely scabrous, nodes yellowish; Spikelets, many, similar, 1 per node, 5-6.2 mm. × 1.5-2 mm. wide, 2-many flowered; Compression, unremarkable; Glumes, lower, 2.5 mm., veins, #3, upper, 3.2 mm., veins, #3, awns, #0; Florets, 3 per spikelet, fertile; Axis, sparsely hairy; Lemma, 3.5 mm., ±=glumes, lanceolate, membranous, rounded proximal ½ to weakly keeled above, wavy hairy (to 0.5 mm.) proximally, not cobwebby, color, green, veins, #5, ±parallel, tip, entire, obtuse, awns, #0; Palea, 3.2 mm., ±lemma, membranous, glabrous, greenish at base and margins, Anthers, 1.3 mm. Described from Coll. No. 1855, 18 May 2018.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Top of hill, near social trail. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1855. 18 May 2018. ( JCOSs.n. ) . .

Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash.  Little Bluestem. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Determination tentative. Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. . .

Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) A. Gray.  (Syn: Agrostis cryptandra Torr. ) Sand Drop-seed. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial grass, to 50 cm., caespitose; Leaves, cauline, sheath, 45 mm., overlapping about ½, open, ciliate distally; ligule, hairy, 0.5 mm., collar of hairs to 3 mm., blade, 150 mm. × 3.5 mm. wide, rolled to flat; Inflorescence, open panicle, 120 mm, × 45 mm. wide, lower branches included in sheath; Spikelets, 2 mm. × 0.5 mm. wide, crowded on panicle branches, glabrous throughout; Florets, 1 per spikelet, bisexual; Glumes, #2, awns 0, lower, 0.7 mm., upper, 1.8 mm.; Lemma, 2.0 mm., veins, 1, prominent green, awns, 0; Palea, 1.9 mm. Described from Coll. No. 1757, 31 Aug 2017.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Top of hill, adjacent to social trail. Native to Colorado, but also commonly used in revegetation projects. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1757. 31 Aug 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . .

Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey.  (Syn: Elymus hispidus (Opiz) Melderis ) Intermediate Wheatgrass. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Perennial grass, to >1 m., rhizomatous; Leaves, sheath, open, 19 cm., outer margin ciliate proximally, ligules, membraneous, 1 mm., auricles, 0, blade, 24 cm., involute; Inflorescence, 2-sided spike; Spikelets, 1 per node, sessile, ascending; Glumes, ±equal, 7.5-8.0 mm., stiff, veins 5, tip offset mucronate, awn 0, sparsely hairy on veins and margins; Florets per spikelet, 6; Lemma, 9 mm., stiff, veins 5, tip rudimentary awn; Palea, 8.5 mm., robust, fused to grain. Described from Coll. No. 1272, 20 July 2015.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Determination tentative Tom Schweich 3/27/2017. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue. North central part of parcel, just off the top of the hill. Tom Schweich 1709. 14 Jul 2017. ( Golden KHD ) . .

Triticum aestivum L.  Wheat. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Tom Schweich 2089. 26 Jun 2019. ( Golden ) . .

Vulpia octoflora (Walt.) Rydb.  (Syn: Festuca octoflora Walter , Vulpia octoflora (Walt.) Rydb. var. octoflora ) Six Weeks Fescue. CalPhotos. Jepson eFlora. SEINet Taxon.

Annual, 5-6 cm., tufted; Roots, fibrous; Sheath, 6 mm., open, minutely hairy; Ligule, membraneous, very short; Blade, 4.5 mm. × 0.3 mm. wide, rolled, glabrous; Inflorescence, 1 per culm, >leaves, raceme, 16 mm. × 5 mm. wide; Spikelets, #6, 6-7 mm., similar, 1 / node, many flowered; Compression, lateral; Disarticulation, between florets; Glumes, lower, 2 mm., vein, #1, upper, 3 mm., veins, #3, keeled, awns, #0; Florets, #5-6 per spikelets; Axis, short hairy abaxially; Lemma, 3.2 mm, >glumes, lanceolate, green, rolled, hairs, 0.2 mm., white/straw color, veins, #3, glabrous, tip entire, awns, #1, 1.8 mm., straight, attached to end; Palea, 2.7 mm., <lemma, membraneous, margin ciliate; keeled (Described from Coll. No. 1852, 18 May 2018).

- Upper Washington Avenue Open Space, Top of hill, beside social trail. Small (4 acre) fallow city-owned parcel in northern Golden, near the intersection of Colorado Highway 93 and Washington Avenue, 1.75 km. northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. Tom Schweich 1852. 18 May 2018. ( Golden

Total number of taxa: 125
Native Taxa:
(serif, italic, bold)
78
Exotic Taxa:
(sans-serif, italic)
43
Nativity Undetermined:
(default font, italic)
4
Listed Weeds:
Indentified as Weed
14

Notes:

† -- Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria (ucjeps.berkeley.edu/consortium/).
‡ -- Southwest Environmental Information Network, SEINet. 2009-2014. http//:swbiodiversity.org/seinet/index.php. Accessed from July 2009 to September 2014.

 

Locations Included in This Area

Bibliography