Front Range, Eastern Slope, Rocky Mountains Checklist Flora of Native and Naturalized Vascular Plants of Golden and Vicinity, Jefferson County, Colorado (Continued)  

Tom Schweich  

Home Page
Topics in this Article:
Introduction
Geography
History of Botanic Exploration
Useful Publications
Methods
Results
Discussion - Native Plants
Discussion - Non-Native Plants
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
Literature Cited
Appendices
 Golden, Colorado sits in a valley formed by erosion along the Golden fault, the geotectonic boundary between the North American Cordillera and the Great Plains. Somewhat like Mono Lake, for which I have also prepared a checklist flora, it sits at a boundary, or perhaps ecotone. Things are always more interesting at the boundaries. I started this project when I realized no such list had been prepared for my newly adopted city. I hope you find this checklist flora helpful. Please write to me if you have questions or comments.

 

 

   

Discussion - Native Plants

 

   

Taxa represented by single collections.

 

   

Taxa without infra-specific determinations.

 

 

   

Rare Plants

 
  There are two plants found in Golden s.l. that are ranked as “rare” by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Physaria vitulifera;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1345, 12 May 2016;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1345, Physaria vitulifera

Area List: Golden.  

Physaria vitulifera Rydb. “Fiddleleaf Twinpod”

Global Rank: G3, State Rank: S3: Vulnerable, found locally in a restricted range.

Reported as an endemic of central Colorado in the Flora of North America (FNA Vol. 7). Known from Boulder, Clear Creek, Douglas, El Paso, Gilpin, Jefferson, Park and Teller counties.

There is also a hybrid, currently designated Physaria ×1, and some current collections determined P. vitulifera may be of that hybrid.

   

Spiranthes diluvialis Sheviak. “Ute Ladies' Tresses”

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Spiranthes diluvialis;
Full Size ImageSpiranthes diluvialis

Area List: Golden.  

Global Rank: G2G3, State Rank: S2: Widely distributed, but severely threatened where it occurs.

Populations of Ute ladies'-tresses orchids are known from three broad general areas of the interior western United States -- near the base of the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains in southeastern Wyoming and adjacent Nebraska and north-central and central Colorado; in the upper Colorado River basin, particularly in the Uinta Basin; and in the Bonneville Basin along the Wasatch Front and westward in the eastern Great Basin, in north-central and western Utah, extreme eastern Nevada, and southeastern Idaho.

The species is threatened throughout its range by many forms of water developments, intense domestic livestock grazing, haying, exotic species invasion, fragmentation and urbanization in particular.

In Golden s.l., we do not identify locations where this plant has been found.

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notable Non-Native Plants;  

Notable Native Plants

Every native plant is notable to a native plant enthusiast. It is hard to pick out just a few for special mention.

 

Literature Cited:
- Zeise, Larry Steven, 1976.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Equisetum laevigatum;

Area List: Golden.  

Equisetum laevigatum A. Braun “Smooth Horsetail”

There is only one collection of a “Horsetail” in Golden s.l., that of “Smooth Horsetail” — Equisetum laevigatum A. Braun — made by the author in the Colorado School of Mines Survey Field.

There is additionally a published report of Equisetum hyemale L. by Ziese (1976) that is supported by a second informal report (Cindy Trujillo, personal communication). Reports or collection of other Horsetails include E. arvense, E. variegatum, and several hybrids. These reports or collections are scattered widely in Jefferson County. Equisetum is found throughout Colorado, though less dense on the eastern plains and in Moffatt County.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Argyrochosma fendleri;

Area List: Golden.  

Argyrochosma fendleri (Kunze) Windham “Fendler's False Cloak Fern”

 

 

Literature Cited:
- Fee, A. L. A., 1852.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Cheilanthes feei;

Area List: Golden.  

Cheilanthes feei T. Moore “Slender Lipfern”

Only one collection of “Slender Lipfern” — Cheilanthes feei T. Moore — in Golden s.l., that from South Table Mountain. There is only one other collection from Jefferson County, made along Clear Creek about four miles above Golden. There are many other collections scattered around Colorado.

First described as Myriopteris gracilis by Fee (1852) citing habitat on rocks around Hillsboro, in North America.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Selaginella underwoodii;

Area List: Golden.  

Selaginella underwoodii Hieron “Underwood's Spikemoss”

One collection on South Table Mountain in a stream gulley.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Cystopteris fragilis;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1447.1, Fern, perhaps Cystopteris fragilis

Area List: Golden.  

Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. “Brittle Bladderfern”

There are collections of “Brittle Bladderfern” — Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. — from North and South Table Mountains. This fern is more common in the foothills of Jefferson County than out on the high plains. Common fern in the mountains of Colorado, with a few collections out on the southeast plains.

The fern was first described by Linnaeus (1753) as Polypodium fragile from habitats described as the cooler hills of Europe. Cystopteris was proposed by Bernhardi in 1805, who placed C. fragilis therein. This was done in German which, I confess, I have not tried to translate. The fern is widely distributed in both the northern and southern hemisphere.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Woodsia oregana ssp. cathcartiana`;
Full Size ImageWoodsia in a crevice on west side of North Table Mountain.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1343, Woodsia oregana subsp. cathcartiana

Area List: Golden.  

Woodsia oregana D.C. Eaton ssp. cathcartiana (B.L. Rob.) Windham “Rocky Mountain Woodsia”

Woodsia oregana D.C. Eaton ssp. cathcartiana (B.L. Rob.) Windham — “Rocky Mountain Woodsia” — is found on North and South Table Mountains. It is probably also in Apex Park and on Lookout Mountain but, so far, has not been collected there. There are a few collections scattered around Jefferson County. Most collections in Colorado are from the Front Range and higher southern mountains, with a few collections out on the eastern plains, mostly in canyons or crevices.

 

Literature Cited:
- Presl, Karl B., 1845.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Azolla mexicana;

Area List: Golden.  

Azolla mexicana C. Presl “Mexican Mosquito Fern”

There is only one collection near Golden s.l. along CO Highway 58 just west of McIntyre Street. This is also the only collection in Jefferson County. There are only a few collections along waterways east of the Rocky Mountain Front Range.

Described by Presl (1845) from plants known from Mexico.

It is not clear to me that A. mexicana C. Presl is in question. Some authors apply A. mexicana Schltdl. & Cham., which is further placed in synonomy with A. microphylla Kaulf.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1816.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Juniperus communis var. depressa;

Locations: Colorado School of Mines Survey Field. Eagle Ridge. Tin Cup Ridge.

Area List: Golden.  

Juniperus communis L. var. depressa Pursh “Common Juniper”

The Common Juniper — Juniperus communis var. depressa — is found around hilly edges of Golden s.l. such as Tin Cup Ridge or the Survey Field at the base of the Rocky Mountain Front Range scarp. It is likely additionally found at higher elevations in the Front Range, but this very common juniper is clearly undercollected, perhaps because it is so common. For example, the author has seen it at Buffalo Creek, but did not collect it.

The species and all the varieties are called the “Common Juniper.” The species name is a Linnean name published 1753 in his Species Plantarum noting that the plant occurs in the northern woods of Europe. Frederick Pursh (1814) proposed the variety name depressa from plant he had seen live in New York and Maine. The varietal name depressa refers to the overall shape of the plant, giving the appearance of being flattened from above.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1361, Juniperus communis var. depressa

 

Literature Cited:
- Sargent, Charles Sprague., 1897.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Juniperus scopulorum;
Full Size ImageJuniperus scopulorum Sarg. (Rocky Mountain Juniper) in Chimney Gulch

Area List: Golden.  

Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. “Rocky Mountain Juniper”

The Rocky Mountain Juniper — Juniperus scopulorum Sargent — is found in all the hilly areas around Golden s.l., from Tin Cup Ridge on the south to Dakota Ridge on the north. The highly visible ‘Lollipop Tree’ on the west rim of North Table Mountain is a Rocky Mountain Juniper.

The taxon was originally treated as J. virginiana L. or the Red Cedar. C. S. Sargent (1897) recognized J. scopulorum as a separate species. The Rocky Mountain Juniper is found as far east of South Dakota and Nebraska, where it is known to hybridize with its eastern relative J. virginiana in zones of contact in the Missouri River basin. To the west, J. scopulorum is known to occur in Oregon, Nevada, and Arizona, though not California. Hybrids of J. scopulorum and J. osteosperma are known from from Walnut Canyon [Arizona?] north into Utah and east to Mesa Verde.

 

Literature Cited:
- Brewer, W. H., Sereno Watson, and Asa Gray, 1880.
- Gernandt, David S., Gretel Geada Lopez, Sol Ortiz Garcia, and Aaron Liston, 2005.
- Lawson, Peter & Son, 1836.
- Willyard, Ann, et al., 2017.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Pinus ponderosa;
• Tilting Mesa Trail:   along trail;

Area List: Golden.  

Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson & C. Lawson. “Ponderosa Pine”

Like the Rocky Mountain Juniper, the Ponderosa Pine — Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson & C. Lawson — is found on all the hilly areas around Golden s.l., except perhaps South Table Mountain. There is one tree on top of North Table Mountain near the radio tower. These single trees are usually treated as somewhat suspicious as having been planted. At other places such as Dakota Ridge, Windy Saddle Park, Tin Cup Ridge, and Apex Park, there are small natural groves.

The Ponderosa Pine was one of several trees that David Douglas (1799-1834) introduced into cultivation in England following his second expedition to the Pacific Northwest. Another of Douglas' introductions was the Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). The pine species was described from specimens grown in England and grown in botanic or agricultural gardens. The published description was by Peter Lawson and his son (1836) from plants still in pots at his Agricultural Museum in Edinburgh, Scotland. This was supplemented by a larger specimen growing in the Caledonian Horticultural Society's Gardens, Inverleith Row, now part of the Royal Botanic Garden, also in Edinburgh, Scotland. The specific epithet ponderosa refers to the density of the “… timber said to be so ponderous as almost to sink in water …”

Several varieties of P. ponderosa have been described, and those in Colorado are generally known as variety scopulorum Engelmann in S. Watson (Brewer, Watson, and A. Gray, 1880, vol. 2, pg. 126) though the taxonomy of this complex is far from resolved. Some recent evidence suggests that our variety scopulorum might be better treated at the rank of species (Willyard, et al., 2017). At the generic level, a phylogeny of Pinus was published by Gernandt, et al. (2005).

Full Size Image
Ponderosa pine on top of North Table Mountain.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca;
• Mesa Top Trail:   along trail;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1502, 12 Jul 2016;

Locations: North Table Mountain Park.
Full Size ImageDouglas Fir above the Mesa Top Trail

Area List: Golden.  

Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco. “Douglas Fir”

There is one tree on North Table Mountain and then, of course, many more on Lookout Mountain.
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1502, Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca

   

Salicaceae

Scales Catkins Flowers Life Form Genus
3-10 scales Usually pendulous Subtended by a cup- or saucer-like disc Trees Populus
1-scale Usually erect or spreading Subtended by a nectary or entire bract Trees or shrubs Salix

 

Literature Cited:
- Stettler, R. F., H. D. Bradshaw, Jr., P. E. Heilman, and T. M. Hinckley, editors, 1996.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Populus;  

Populus L. “Poplar”

 

 

Literature Cited:
- James, Edwin, ed., 1823.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Populus angustifolia;

Area List: Golden.  

Populus angustifolia E. James “Narrowleaf Cottonwood”

Collected on South Table Mountain and observed on North Table Mountain. Common along Clear Creek where it grows with the Plains Cottonwood. Collected in Jefferson County along the base of the Front Range and slightly up in the foothills. Colorado state collections are from the base of the Front Range to the west.

Described by James in diary entry for July 4, 1820, when the Long expedition was encamped on the South Platte River near Brighton. The holotype is at NY.

 

Literature Cited:
- Aiton, William, 1789.
- Eckenwalder, James E., 1977.
- Marshall, Humphry, 1785.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Populus deltoides ssp. monilifera;

Area List: Golden.  

Populus deltoides Marshall ssp. monilifera (Aiton) Eckenw. “Plains Cottonwood”

Our common “Plains Cottonwood” — Populus deltoides Marshall ssp. monilifera (Aiton) Eckenw. — has been collected on North and South Table Mountains, and at Dakota Ridge, but not down at Clear Creek. It is there, but the lack of collections is probably an artifact of collector's bias. In Jefferson County, most collections are along the base of the foothills, including the intensely collected areas of Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms, with a very few collections in the foothills, such as Golden Gate Canyon State Park and Platte Canyon. Colorado state collections are divided into east slope and west slope, with subspecies monilifera in the east slope foothills and out on the plains, and subspecies wizlizenii in the valleys of the west slope.

The species was first described by Marshall (1785) as the “White Poplar” or “Cotton Tree of Carolina” from the banks of large rivers in Carolina and Florida. Separately, William Aiton (1789) described P. monilifera from plants native to Canada and introduced to the Kew garden in 1772. Eckenwalter (1977) assembled our current name by referring P. monilifera as a subspecies of P. deltoides

Full Size Image
Salix amygdaloides (Coll. No. 1886) with Cottonwood in southern Survey Fields.

 

Literature Cited:
- Michaux, Andre, 1803.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Populus tremuloides;

Area List: Golden.  

Populus tremuloides Michx. “Quaking Aspen”

There is only a report of Populus tremuloides Michx. “Quaking Aspen” on North Table Mountain; the author has not seen it. Jefferson County collections are well into the Rocky Mountain foothills. Common along streams and in the mountains where it forms large clonal stands, 6,000 - 11,700 ft. Colorado state collections are in the mountains, though it does get out on Palmer Divide in the Black Forest.

Named by Michaux (1803) from locations in Canada and New York (“Noveboraco”) for its resemblance to the European Populus tremula L. also commonly called “aspen.” At least once our tree was referred to P. tremula subsp. tremuloides (Michx.) Á.Löve & D.Löve .

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Salix amygdaloides;
Full Size ImageSalix amygdaloides (Coll. No. 1886) with Cottonwood in southern Survey Fields.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1886, Salix amygdaloides

Area List: Golden.  

Salix amygdaloides Andersson “Peachleaf Willow”

Several collections or observations in Golden s.l., including North and South Table Mountains, the Survey Field, and Stonebridge HOA. Most Jefferson County collections are on the plains up to the base of the foothills, with just a few in the lower foothills. Most Colorado state collections are along the base of the foothills or out on the plains, with a few in the valleys of the west slope.

Described by Andersson (1858) with habitat at Fort Pierre on the Missouri River (South Dakota), collected by Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied on his 1832-1834 trip to the Great Plains region of the United States. Andersson saw the specimen in a herbarium in Vienna (“Hb. vindob.”).

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1842-1849.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Salix exigua;

Area List: Golden.  

Salix exigua Nutt. “Coyote Willow”

The Coyote Willow — Salix exigua — can be found along practically every watercourse in Golden s.l. Of course, it is rarely collected because it is so common. There are reports of it on North Table Mountain, and the writer's collection at Ramstetter Reservoir on the northwest side of the mesa. But, otherwise, no one bothers to collect it except, maybe, in the heavily-collected places, such as Rocky Flats.

It is the only willow that is found in every county of Colorado.

The species was descibed by Nuttall (1842) in his extension of Michaux's North American Sylva as being found in the Territory of Oregon without any additional information about collector, location, date, &c. It it also a little curious that Nuttall mentions no willows in either his report of his residency in Oregon (Nuttall, 1840) or in his descriptions of plants collected by William Gambel (Nuttall, 1848).

Full Size Image
Pistillate catkin of Coll. No. 1880, Salix exigua
Full Size Image
Staminate catkin of Coll. No. 1880, Salix exigua

 

Literature Cited:
- Andersson, Nils Johan, 1858.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Salix irrorata;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2490, Salix irrorata.

Area List: Golden.  

Salix irrorata Andersson “Dewystem Willow”

One collection on Lookout Mountain more than 100 years ago. Other collections in Jefferson County include Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms, in addition to locations in the foothills. Colorado state collections are along the Rocky Mountain front range, with a scattering in southwest Colorado.

Described by Andersson (1858) from a collection by Agustus Fendler in New Mexico.

 

Literature Cited:
- Hooker, William Jackson, Sir, 1837-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Betula occidentalis;
Full Size ImageWater Birch (Betula occidentalis) along Clear Creek.

Area List: Golden.  

Betula occidentalis Hook. “Water Birch”

There is one collection, by Wm. Huestis in Golden. The author has seen it in the flood plain of Clear Creek just west of US Highway 6. Collections are scattered around Jefferson County, those on the plains associated with either Clear Creek or Bear Creek. Colorado collections are from the Front Range to the west.

Described by Hooker (1837, v. 2, p. 155) from collections by Dr. Scouler at the Straits of De Fuca, near springs on the west side of the Rocky Mountains (Douglas), and on the east side of the Rocky Mountains to Edmonton House (Drummond).

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2644, Betula occidentalis.

 

Literature Cited:
- Marshall, Humphry, 1785.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Corylus cornuta;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2628, Corylus cornuta

Area List: Golden.  

Corylus cornuta Marshall “Beaked Hazelnut”

There is one collection of “Beaked Hazelnut” — Corylus cornuta Marshall — in Golden s.l. It was made by E. H. Brunquist as part of the vegetation survey for the Magic Mountain archeological dig. Brunquist found the plant in the shade of a rocky outcrop in Apex Gulch. Several trees have been observed by the author at that approximate location in Apex Gulch, though not in a condition that would justify collecting. So a confirming collection will have to be made in the future. Collections in Jefferson County have been made in watercourses right at the edge of the Front Range, with a couple more in Golden Gate Canyon State Park. Most of the Colorado collections were made at or near the base of the Front Range.

Our tree was first described by Marshall (1785) giving the common names of “Dwarf Filbert” or “Cuckold-nut,” and described as a smaller version of C. americana Marshall, the “American Hazelnut.” Marshal wrote no description of where the trees were found, or who might have discovered them.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Quercus gambelii;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2288, 20 May 2020;  Coll. No. 2391, 17 Jul 2020;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2391, Quercus gambelii

Area List: Golden.  

Quercus gambelii Nutt. “Gambel Oak”

Gambel Oak — Quercus gambelii — is found mostly in southern Jefferson County and, until recently, not in Golden. However, the writer found it recently in a canyon in Apex Park. It is also found on Dinosaur Ridge just south of Interstate 70 and therefore just south of the Golden city limits. The Gambel oaks on Eagle Ridge Drive near Kinney Run were planted.

The oak is broadly distributed throughout the American Southwest. For example, the writer has also collected it in the Spring Mountains, Clark County, Nevada, about 45 km. northwest of Las Vegas.

The oak was named by Thomas Nuttall (1848) for its first collector William Gambel who at the age of eighteen set off on his own for California and to collect plants and other specimens for Nuttall. The collection was made on the banks of the Rio del Norte, which we now call the Rio Grande River, presumably somewhere near Santa Fe, New Mexico. The Rio Grande does not actually pass through Santa Fe, but passes some 40 km. to the west.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2288, Quercus gambelii

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John G., 1828.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Celtis reticulata;
Full Size ImageColl. No, 1799, Celtis reticulata

Area List: Golden.  

Celtis reticulata Torr. “Net-Leaved Hackberry”

Known mostly from hillslopes on North and South Table Mountains, Dakota Ridge, and Apex Park, “Net-Leaved Hackberry” — Celtis reticulata Torr. — is found occasionally in Golden s.l. Most of the Jefferson County collections have been within a few kilometers of Golden, with notably no collections from Rocky Flats or Chatfield Farms. At the state level the collections are scattered around the state wherever there are rocky slopes and canyons at lower elevations.

The tree was described by Torrey (1828) from collections by Edwin James MD, botanist on the Stephen H. Long expedition of 1820.

Celtis reticulata Torr. is often infested by witches'-broom; caused by a combination of eriophyid mites (Acari) and the powdery mildew fungus

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Small, Ernest, 1993+.
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Humulus lupulus;

Area List: Golden.  

Humulus lupulus L. “Wild Hops”

“Wild Hops” — Humulus lupulus L. — is found occasionally in Golden s.l. usually in rocky and moist situations. For example, the most dense occurrences are in Apex Gulch and in Clear Creek Canyon, although the latter location is just outside Golden s.l. It is also found occasionally in odd places, i.e., in a partially filled in mine pit, on the edges of small wetlands, and in the headscarp of an ancient landslide on North Table Mountain. In Jefferson County, our plant has also been found at Rocky Flats, Ranson/Edwards, and Chatfield Farms. It is generally found from the Front Range west in Colorado.

Five different names have been applied to collections of wild hops in Colorado (Humulus americanus Nutt., H. lupulus L., H. lupulus subsp. americanus (Nutt.) Á.Löve & D.Löve, H. lupulus var. lupuloides E. Small, and H. lupulus var. neomexicanus A. Nelson & Cockerell) and indeed there may be several different taxa in the state. Small (1993+) writing in the Flora of North America North of Mexico accepts H. lupulus var. neomexicanus A. Nelson & Cockerell. Colorado authors Weber and Wittmann (2012) accept H. lupulus var. neomexicanus Nelson & Cockerell, whereas Ackerfield (2015) treats it at the rank of species as H. neomexicanus Rydb. Confounding factors include the introduction of European domestic hops to support the beer industry. Wild and domestic hops hybridize leading some to question whether there is any pure wild hops remaining, except perhaps in the most remote locations.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2419, Humulus lupulus
Full Size Image
Wild hops growing on Chokecherry, with Hairy Willow herb below.

 

Literature Cited:
- Willdenow, Carl L., 1797-1830.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Parietaria pensylvanica;

Area List: Golden.  

Parietaria pensylvanica Willd. “Pennsylvania Pellitory”

One collection at the base of cliffs on the north side of South Table Mountain, plus a collection by Marcus E. Jones that may have been in Golden s.l. or maybe not. Several collections in Jefferson County at the base of, or just barely into, the foothills, including a collection in Bull Gulch (Lippincott Ranch) by the author. Colorado state collections are broadly scattered across the state.

Described by Willdenow (1805) from a manuscript by Muhlenberg, from Pennsylvania, though we now know the native range is continental US and most of Canada.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Urtica dioica ssp. gracilis;

Area List: Golden.  

Urtica dioica L. ssp. gracilis (Aiton) Seland. “Stinging Nettle”

Only one observation in Golden s.l. in the Stonebridge HOA. Probably more common than that. Only four collections in Jefferson County, one by the author at Lippincott Ranch. Most Colorado state collections are in the mountains at lower elevations; not out on the plains or in northwest Colorado.

The subspecies was described by Selander (1947) in Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift [Swedish Botanical Journal] that is not available online.

 

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1850.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Arceuthobium vaginatum var. cryptopodium;

Area List: Golden.  

Arceuthobium vaginatum (Willd.) J. Presl var. cryptopodium (Engelm.) Cronquist “Pineland Dwarf Mistletoe”

One collection from Lookout Mountain. Other collections from the foothills. Found throughout Colorado, wherever ponderosa pines are found.

Described by George Engelmann in Gray (1850) primarily from a collection by Agustus Fendler in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

 

Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustus Pyramus, 1857.
- Der, Joshua P., and Daniel L. Nickrent, 2008.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.
- Piehl, Martin A., 1965.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Comandra umbellata ssp. pallida;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1373, 29 May 2016;

Area List: Golden.  

Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. ssp. pallida (A. DC.) Piehl. “Pale Bastard Toadflax”

Pale Bastard Toadflax — Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. Ssp. pallida — is common in Golden s.l. and frequently collected. The species is found all across the United States and into Canada, while the subspecies found in Colorado, subspecies pallida, is found between Kansas/Nebraska west to Nevada.

In Jefferson County, it has been collected at Rocky Flats, Ranson/Edwards and North and South Table Mountains, though not at Chatfield, which seems a little odd.

Nuttall (1818) first published the name Comandra umbellata, using a Linnaeus name of Thesium umbellatum as a basionym. C. pallida was proposed by DeCandolle (1857) from a collection made in present-day Nez Perce County, Idaho, by missionary Reverend Henry H. Spalding. Piehl (1965) reduced C. pallida to a subspecies of C. umbellata noting that the various subspecies intergrade. There is thus one species of Comandra in North America with three subspecies, and one subspecies in the Balkan region of Europe. Recent phylogenetic work (Der and Nickrent, 2008) supports a Comandra clade within the Santalaceae.

Comandra umbellata has a couple of interesting characters. First, it is parasitic as apparently is much of the Santalaceae, parasitizing other plants from rhizomes. Second, hairs growing from the petals to the back side of the stamens is somewhat unique. They also play a role in forest pathology as alternate hosts of the comandra-pine blister rust. Finally our subspecies, pallida dies back to the ground each year, resprouting each spring from subterranean buds.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1373, Comandra umbellata subsp. pallida
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1373, Comandra umbellata subsp. pallida

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Reveal, J. L., 2005.
- Sitgreaves, L., 1853.
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Eriogonum alatum;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2390, 17 Jul 2020;

Area List: Golden.  

Eriogonum alatum Torr. “Winged Buckwheat”

Very distinctive and common around Golden s.l. is the Winged Buckwheat — Eriogonum alatum Torr. — that has a unique appearance among the wild buckwheats. It has a rosette of leaves, and a single tall flower stalk with flowers dispersed in a much branched inflorescence. The plant is monocarpic, meaning that it grows for several seasons, then flowers once, dying in the process.

Winged buckwheat is found sparingly in Jefferson County, primarily in drier sites along the Rocky Mountain foothills. More broadly, the winged buckwheat is found throughout the Colorado Plateau and nearby places.

The taxon name was published by John Torrey in 1857, from a collection made along the Zuni River, in Arizona or New Mexico. Torrey notes that the unique plant was seen in the field as early as 1842 by John Frémont and by other early plant explorers, though he makes no explanation for the delay in publishing a name for the plant.

Winged buckwheat is sometimes treated as Pterogonum alatum (Torr.) Gross, e.g., for Colorado in Weber & Wittmann (2012). However, other authors, e.g., Ackerfield (2015) and Reveal in Flora of North America (Reveal, 2005), place the taxon in Eriogonum reducing Pterogonum to the rank of subgroup.

Full Size Image
Eriogonum alatum
Full Size Image
Voucher of Coll. No. 2390, Eriogonum alatum

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds., 1993+.
- Greene, Edward L., 1901.
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Eriogonum arcuatum;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1401.1, 8 Jun 2016;  Coll. No. 1695, 29 Jun 2017;

Area List: Golden.  

Eriogonum arcuatum Greene “Baker's Buckwheat”

Baker's Buckwheat — Eriogonum arcuatum Greene — is one of two similar-appearing caespitose wild buckwheats found in Golden s.l. The other is the Sulphur-Flower Buckwheat — Eriogonum umbellatum — that is discussed below. The two wild buckwheats can be confused for each other if they are not examined carefully. In E. arcuatum the perianth is hairy externally whereas E. umbellatum is glabrous externally, in addition to other differences.

E. arcuatum has been widely collected in Golden s.l., from Mt. Vernon Canyon in the south, on North and South Table Mountains, to North Washington Open Space. It probably can also be found in the other open spaces as well.

There are also observations of E. flavum on North Table Mountain, and a collection there by the writer. Yet today we might identify those plants as E. arcuatum. Users of Weber & Wittmann (2012) would have applied E. flavum to them, because those authors treat E. arcuatum as a local race rather than a separate species. Ackerfield's (2015) Flora of Colorado and Reveal's (2005) treatment of Eriogonum in Flora of North America treat E. arcuatum and E. flavum as a distinct species. This leaves the vouchers E. flavum and the SEINet data base prepared from those vouchers in a confused state, in that some of those carrying the name E. flavum could very well be E. arcuatum.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1232, Eriogonum flavum var. flavum arcuatum.
Full Size Image
Inflorescence of Coll. No. 1401.1, Eriogonum arcuatum
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1695, Eriogonum arcuatum

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Eriogonum effusum;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2431.1, 19 Aug 2020;
Full Size ImageEriogonum effusum along trail at Red Rocks
Full Size ImageEriogonum effusum along trail at Red Rocks

Area List: Golden.  

Eriogonum effusum Nutt. “Spreading Buckwheat”

Eriogonum effusum Nutt. — “Spreading Buckwheat” — is quite different than the other wild buckwheats found in Golden s.l. As a member of subgroup Eucycla, this one is a subshrub rather than low or spreading.

Nuttall (1848) described Eriogonum effusum in his description of plants collected by William Gambel. It is, however, a Nuttall collection made on the “… Platte plains …” and therefore on his 1834 journey across the Rocky Mountains.

E. effusum is the only representative of Eriogonum subgroup Eucycla that is found in Golden s.l.

Full Size Image
Voucher of Coll. No. 2431.1, Eriogonum effusum

 

Literature Cited:
- Reveal, James L., 2004.
- Torrey, John G., 1828.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Torrey, 1828, publication details;  Notes on Eriogonum umbellatum;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1445, 22 Jun 2016;   Coll. No. 1445.2, 22 Jun 2016;

Area List: Golden.  

Eriogonum umbellatum Torrey, Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York. 2: 241. 1827. “Sulphur-Flower Buckwheat”

Quntessential Jefferson County plant because the type was collected in Jefferson County by Edwin James, M.D. in 1820. The species is native to western North America from California to Colorado to central Canada, where it is abundant and found in many habitats. This is an extremely variable plant and hard to identify because individuals can look very different from one another. Also, there are a great many varieties. Nearly all of the sulphur-flower buckwheats in Golden s.l. will be var. umbellatum.

There is another variety, var. ramulosum, that Jim Reveal (2004) described from Mount Vernon Canyon on the southern edge of Golden. The inflorescence is branched and there is an additional whorl of bracts below the branches of the inflorescence. The writer has also found this variety in the north part of Apex Park, about 3˝ km. north of Mount Vernon Canyon.

Full Size Image
Habitat of Coll. No. 1445, Eriogonum umbellatum
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1445, Eriogonum umbellatum var. umbellatum

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Eriogonum umbellatum var. ramulosum;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2389, Eriogonum umbellatum var. ramulosum
Full Size ImageInflorescence of Coll. No. 2389, Eriogonum umbellatum var. ramulosum

Area List: Golden.  

Eriogonum umbellatum Torr. var. ramulosum Reveal “Buffalo Bill's Sulphur Flower”

Jefferson County collections of this variety are limited to Reveal's (2004) type collections and a collection by the author in Apex Park, just slightly to the north. The other Colorado collections are in or near Estes Park [Collections that appear in Denver and near Foxton are georeferencing errors.]

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Eriogonum umbellatum var. umbellatum;
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1445, Eriogonum umbellatum
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1445, Eriogonum umbellatum var. umbellatum

Area List: Golden.  

Eriogonum umbellatum Torr. var. umbellatum. “Sulphur-Flower Buckwheat”

Eriogonum umbellatum Torr. var. umbellatum. “Sulphur-Flower Buckwheat” is found in every Golden s.l. open space. Jefferson County collections are distributed in the northern part of the county, primarily in the intensely-collected locations. It is a little surprising that it has not been collected in the southern part of the county. Colorado state collections are mostly from the Front Range to the west.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Polygonum douglasii;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1718, Polygonum douglasii
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1718, Polygonum douglasii

Area List: Golden.  

Polygonum douglasii Greene “Douglas Knotweed”

Collected in Apex Park and on South Table Mountain, and in the author's garden, Polygonum douglasii Greene “Douglas Knotweed” is a common native “weed.” Most collections are in the urban areas of northern Jefferson County, although the author has collected it in the Buffalo Creek Recreation Area. Colorado collections are mostly in the mountain valleys on the east and west slopes, not out on the plains.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Polygonum engelmannii;

Area List: Golden.  

Polygonum engelmannii Greene “Engelmann's Knotweed”

There are two collections of Polygonum engelmannii Greene “Engelmann's Knotweed,” one in 1884 at the generic location of Golden, and the other more recently on private land on Lookout Mountain. Other Jefferson County collections were made at Chatfield Farms and Bergen Park. Colorado state collections are made in the mountainous regions, and not out on the plains.

P. engelmanii has been treated as a variety of P. douglasii.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Polygonum ramosissimum;

Area List: Golden.  

Polygonum ramosissimum Michx. “Bushy Knotweed”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rumex salicifolius;  Notes on Rumex triangulivalvis;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2670, Rumex triangulivalvis

Area List: Golden.  

Rumex triangulivalvis (Danser) Rech. f. “Triangular-Valved Dock”

A collection on South Table Mountain and an observation on North Table Mountain. Jefferson County collections are mostly on the plains with just a few collections in the foothills. Colorado state collections are found from the high plains west along roadsides, in meadows and along streams.

The author has collected our plant at Lippincott Ranch and at Mono Lake, California.

 

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Rumex venosus;

Area List: Golden.  

Rumex venosus Pursh “Veiny Dock”

One collection on South Table Mountain and an observation by the author on Dakota Ridge. No other collections in Jefferson County. Mostly a plant of the plains, and found occasionally in northwest Colorado.

Descibed by Pursh (1814, v. 2, supplement, p. 733) from a collection by Bradbury in Upper Louisiana.

   

Chenopodiaceae Vent — Goosefoot Family

 

 

Literature Cited:
- Moulton, Gary E., 1999.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1816.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Atriplex canescens;

Locations: Big Bend of the Missouri.

Area List: Golden.  

Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt. “Four-wing Saltbush”

One collection on South Table Mountain (Peter Root, 83-12) made just below the cliff forming the edge of the mesa top. The author has also seen it along Alameda Parkway on the west side of Dinosaur Ridge.

Otherwise, around Jefferson County, it has been collected in the heavly collected places, such as Chatfield and Rocky Flats.

In North American, this taxon is found from the 95th Meridian (east-central Oklahoma and Texas), west to the southern Coast Ranges of California, and from the north near Calgary, Alberta, south to central Mexico.

The name, as Calligonum canescens, was published by Pursh (1814-1816, v. 2., p. 370) from a collection in the Lewis & Clark herbarium that was made at the Big Bend of the Missouri River on September 21, 1804 (Moulton, 1999). Nuttall (1818, p. 197) moved the plant to Atriplex.

Full Size Image
Detail of Coll. No. 721, Atriplex canescens var. canescens
Full Size Image
Overview of Coll. No. 721, Atriplex canescens var. canescens

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Chenopodium atrovirens;

Area List: Golden.  

Chenopodium atrovirens Rydb. “Pinyon Goosefoot”

There is one collection, made at the site of the Magic Mountain acrheological dig. A couple other Jefferson County collections, around the northern part of the county. Many more Colorado collections, from the Front Range to the west.

 

Literature Cited:
- Moquin-Tandon, Alfred, 1840.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Chenopodium berlandieri;

Area List: Golden.  

Chenopodium berlandieri Moq. “Pitseed Goosefoot”

There are three collections of “Pitseed Goosefoot” — Chenopodium berlandieri Moq. — in Golden s.l., two from South Table Mountain and the other from the base of Lookout Mountain. This would be in the Survey Field or Windy Saddle Park. There are a few collections along the Front Range in Jefferson County. Colorado collections are scattered around the state in disturbed places, along creeks, and open spaces.

The species was described by Moquin-Tandon (1840) from a collection by Berlandier in Mexico.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Suckleya suckleyana;

Area List: Golden.  

Suckleya suckleyana (Torr.) Rydb. “Poison Suckleya”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Amaranthus arenicola;

Area List: Golden.  

Amaranthus arenicola I. M. Johnst. “Sandhill Pigweed”

There is one collection of “Sandhill Pigweed” — Amaranthus arenicola I. M. Johnst. — from the Table Mountain Ranch at the northwest corner of North Table Mountain. That is the only collection of the species in Jefferson County, while the species is found on the eastern plains up to the foothills.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Amaranthus blitoides;

Area List: Golden.  

Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson “Mat Amaranth”

I have never seen “Mat Amaranth” — Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson — in my travels around Golden s.l. Or … have I … and overlooked a non-descript weed in the dirt. There are only a few collections around Jefferson County of this species that is scattered around Colorado, except for northwest Colorado.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Amaranthus powellii;

Area List: Golden.  

Amaranthus powellii S. Watson “Powell's Pigweed”

There are just two collections of “Powell's Pigweed” — Amaranthus powellii S. Watson — from Golden s.l., and just two more from all of Jefferson County. Colorado collections are concentrated around Denver and Fort Collins (weedy areas?) and otherwise scattered around Colorado except, again, the northwest.

The pigweed was named for Col. John Wesley Powell, who brought seeds from Arizona.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Froelichia gracilis;

Area List: Golden.  

Froelichia gracilis (Hook.) Moq. “Slender Snakecotton”

“Slender Snakecotton” — there is a name for you! The scientific name — Froelichia gracilis (Hook.) Moq. — is not quite so distinctive. Regardless, there are a few collections in Golden s.l., one from the Peabody Museum archeological dig at Heritage Dells, and one from the intersection of Highways 6 and 58. That area, of course, was recently reconstructed with the development of the Basecamp Apartments, and the Gateway to Clear Creek Canyon parking lot. There are a few other collections scattered around the county, and most of the state collections are on the eastern plains and the base of the Front Range.

The type is a Drummond collection from Texas.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Abronia fragrans;
• Colorado State Highway 69:   near Gardner;

Area List: Golden.  

Abronia fragrans Nutt. ex Hook. “Snowball Sand Verbena”

One collection (Ehlers, 8393, 1942) from waste places in Golden. Not seen since. The distribution of Abronia fragrans in the metro Denver area supports the presence of this taxon in Golden s.l. and suggests it may be extirpated here.

Widely distributed in Colorado, primarily on the plains, though also found in the valleys of the Colorado, Gunnison, and Dolores Rivers, and the headwaters of the Huerfano River.

The name was published by Hooker (1853) from a description by Nuttall. Nuttall collected the plant on the sand hills of the Lower Platte, though he does not identify the expedition or the year. It is assumed (by me and others) that the collection was made on his trip to Oregon Territory in 1834. Otherwise, the earliest known collection would be on Fremont's expedition to the Rocky Mountains, 1842. A voucher from Fremont's expedition (NY3370444) was in Torrey's Herbarium, so it would seem that Torrey knew the plant and the name but deferred to Nuttall to publish it.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Mirabilis linearis;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1273, Mirabilis linearis
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1525, Mirabilis linearis

Area List: Golden.  

Mirabilis linearis (Pursh) Heimerl “Narrowleaf Four O'Clock”

Mirabilis linearis (Pursh) Heimerl “Narrowleaf Four O'Clock” is common, but not often seen and, when seen, it is usually solitary plants. Most Jefferson County collections were made along the Front Range, with a few in the interior foothills. Our plant has been collected throughout Colorado, though with less density in the northwest quarter.

First published by Nuttall (1813) as Calymenia angustifolia, then as Allionia linearis by Pursh (1814). Then published as Mirabilis linearis Heimerl (1901). It seems to me that Nuttall's (1813) name has priority over Pursh's name. We could still use Pursh's A. linearis if it were conserved, though I see no evidence of that,

 

Literature Cited:
- MacMillan, Conway, 1892.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Mirabilis nyctaginea;

Area List: Golden.  

Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michx.) MacMill. “Heartleaf Four O'Clock”

Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michx.) MacMill. “Heartleaf Four O'Clock” is found occasionally on North and South Table Mountains, in Deadman Gulch / Kinney Run, and on Tin Cup Ridge. Found mostly on the plains of Jefferson County, right up to the base of the foothills. Most Colorado collections are made from the base of the foothills out onto the plains.

First described by Michaux (1803) as Allionia nyctaginea from habitat on the Tennessee River, placed in Mirabilis by MacMillan (1892, p. 217).

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Claytonia lanceolata;

Area List: Golden.  

Claytonia lanceolata Pursh “Lanceleaf Springbeauty”

There is one collection of Claytonia lanceolata Pursh “Lanceleaf Springbeauty” that may be in Golden s.l. The author has only found C. rosea, see the next, when collecting.

The species was described by Pursh (1814) from a Lewis & Clark collection made in 1806 at the headwaters of the Kooskooski (Clearwater) River.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Claytonia rosea;
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1312, Claytonia rosea above the North Table Loop.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1076, Claytonia rosea

Area List: Golden.  

Claytonia rosea Rydb. “Rocky Mountain Springbeauty”

A very common early spring wildflower in Golden s.l., Claytonia rosea Rydb. “Rocky Mountain Springbeauty” has been found in every open space except North Washington.

Described by Rydberg (1904) as a segregate from C. caroliniana upon examining herbarium specimens.

Found along the Front Range and into the foothills of Jefferson County. Colorado collections are along the Front Range, and then along the south side of the San Juan Mountains.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Phemeranthus parviflorus;

Locations: North Table Mountain.
Full Size ImagePhemeranthus parviflorus on top of North Table Mountain.

Area List: Golden.  

Phemeranthus parviflorus (Nutt.) Kiger “Sunbright”

Sunbright — Phemeranthis parviflorus — is a tiny little perennial that I probably walked over many times before noticing it. The highest density I have seen is in basalt gravel on the southwest quadrant of the top of North Table Mountain, in the same place that Eriogonum arcuatum and E. umbellatum grow together in abundance. It has also been collected on top of South Table Mountain.

It was first collected by Thomas Nuttall on the Arkansas River on his 1818-1820 trip there, and published by Torrey and Gray (1838-1843) as Talinum parviflorum. However, recent molecular and morphological evidence show that the New World genus Phemeranthus in phylogenetically distinct from the generally Old World genus Talinum.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Cerastium arvense strictum;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1479, Cerastium arvense ssp. strictum

Area List: Golden.  

Cerastium arvense L. ssp. strictum Gaudin “Field Chickweed”

“Field Chickweed” — Cerastium arvense L. ssp. strictum Gaudin — is a very common early-blooming wildflower, found in all Golden s.l. open spaces. Found mostly right along the Front Range in Jefferson County, with a few collections in the interior of the county, such as one near Deckers.

Both Cerastium arvense and C. strictum were named by Linnaeus (1753), and Gaudin (1828) reduced strictum to a variety.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Cerastium brachypodum;

Area List: Golden.  

Cerastium brachypodum (Engelmann ex A. Gray) B. L. Robinson “Short-stalked mouse-ear chickweed”

Known from three collections on South Table Mountain and one observation on North Table Mountain. Other collections in Jefferson County from Rocky Flats and Lippincott Ranch. Most collections in Colorado are in the Fort Collins and the Boulder-Denver areas, with a few other collections scattered around the state.

 

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Eremogone fendleri;

Area List: Golden.  

Eremogone fendleri (A. Gray) Ikonnikov “Fendler's Sandwort”

There are no collections of “Fendler's Sandwort” — Eremogone fendleri (A. Gray) Ikonnikov — in Golden s.l., only a report from North Table Mountain (Zeise, 1976). There is a concentration of Jefferson County collections in the Rocky Flats and Ranson/Edwards areas, and then a few collections in the southern interior of the county, e.g., Buffalo Creek Recreation Area. Common in Colorado, except on the eastern plains, on rocky or sandy soil of open slopes.

Collected by Agustus Fendler west of Las Vegas, New Mexico, and described by Gray (1849).

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Paronychia jamesii;

Area List: Golden.  

Paronychia jamesii Torr. & A. Gray “James' Nailwort”

A small, stiff forb, “James' Nailwort” — Paronychia jamesii Torr. & A. Gray — has been collected on the tops of North and South Table Mountains, on thin soils or growing in rock outcrops. There are four species of Paronychia recognized in Colorado (Ackerfield, 2015), but only one (P. jamesii) is known to occur in Jefferson County. Jefferson County collections are mostly along the Front Range, including Rocky Flats, but not Chatfield Farms. Most Colorado collections are similarly along the Front Range with a few collections out on the eastern plains.

The type (NY342575) was collected by Dr. James, June 26, 1820, probably between Ogallala, Keith County, Nebraska, and Julesburg, Sedgwick County, Colorado.

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John G., 1828.
- Weber, William A., and Ronald Hartman, 1979.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Pseudostellaria jamesiana;

Area List: Golden.  

Pseudostellaria jamesiana (Torr.) W. A. Weber & R. L. Hartm. “Tuber Starwort”

There are two collections of Pseudostellaria jamesiana (Torr.) W. A. Weber & R. L. Hartm. “Tuber Starwort” made in Golden s.l. One is quite old (1901) and gives only Golden as the location. The other was made on the Apex Gulch Trail in 1995. There are a couple of other collections, e.g., Marcus E. Jones #272, that may have been made in or near Golden. Jefferson County collections are distributed around the county, though not at Rocky Flats or Chatfield Farms. My collection from Bull Gulch (Lippincott Ranch) is not online yet. Colorado collections are scattered around the state, except for the eastern plains.

Described first from a Dr. Edwin James collection (Torrey, 1827), although James' diary makes no mention of the collection. Weber & Hartman (1979) moved the plant to Pseudostellaria because of its similarity to that Asiatic genus.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Silene antirrhina;

Area List: Golden.  

Silene antirrhina L. “Sleepy Catchfly”

There are three collections of Silene antirrhina L. “Sleepy Catchfly” in Golden s.l., one by the author in the Survey Field, one from South Table Mountain, and a Marcus E. Jones collection from “foothills near Golden.” Other collections in Jefferson County were made at Rocky Flats, and White Ranch Park. Colorado collections are concentrated along the Front Range and in the valleys of southwestern Colorado.

The species was described by Linnaeus (1753) as being native to Virginia and Carolina. We now know it is found from Canada to Mexico (POWO).

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Silene drummondii;

Area List: Golden.  

Silene drummondii Hook. “Drummond's Campion”

There is one collection of Silene drummondii Hook. “Drummond's Campion” made in Golden s.l., made by Edward L. Greene in 1872. It is on the same sheet as a Hall & Harbour collection of the same taxon. Other collections in Jefferson County were made at Rocky Flats, with a single collection from the Tarryall Mountains. Colorado collections are from the Front Range to the west, for the most part.

The taxon was described by Hooker (1830) from collections by Richardson, Drummond, and Douglas.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:   Huestis, Wm. S.;  Notes on Actaea rubra;

Area List: Golden.  

Actaea rubra (Aiton) Willd. “Red Baneberry”

One collection of Actaea rubra (Aiton) Willd. “Red Baneberry” may be in Golden s.l.. It was made in 1916 by William Huestis. Of the other Jefferson County collections, two were made in the Lost Creek Wilderness, one in Golden Gate Canyon State Park, and one by the author at Lippincott Ranch. Colorado state collections are from the Front Range to the west.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linnaeus, Carl, 1766-1768.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Anemone canadensis;

Area List: Golden.  

Anemone canadensis L. “Canada Anemone”

There are three Anemone collected on Lookout Mountain: A. canadensis, A. cylindrica, and A. multifida. All of the collections were made more than 100 years ago.

Of the three, A. canadensis is most common in Jefferson County. Most of the Colorado state collections were made in the Front Ranges.

Described by Linnaeus (1768) as living in Pennsylvania.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Anemone cylindrica;

Area List: Golden.  

Anemone cylindrica A. Gray “Candle Anemone”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Anemone multifida var. multifida;

Area List: Golden.  

Anemone multifida Poir. var. multifida “Pacific Anemone”

Collections that may be in Golden s.l. are on Lookout Mountain or in foothills near Golden. The other Jefferson County collection is along US I-70 near Beaver Brook. Colorado state collections are in the mountains west of the Front Range. The author has collected our plant in Evans Gulch, Lake County, near Leadville.

Be careful to distinguish between Anemone multifida Poir. var. multifida and Anemone patens L. var. multifida Pritzel.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Anemone patens var. multifida;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1075, Anemone patens var. multifida
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1793, Anemone patens var. multifida

Area List: Golden.  

Anemone patens L. var. multifida Pritzel

For a very common plant, there are very few collections of Anemone patens L. var. multifida Pritzel that have been made in Golden s.l.. Actually only one collection is definitely from Golden. Specific searches for our plant in the Survey Field and on Dakota Ridge had found none. Jefferson County collections are scattered around the county, except at the lower elevation locations, such as Chatfield Farms. Most Colorado state collections are found from the Front Range to the west, on open hillsides, meadows, and forests, up to 13,000 ft.

Be careful to distinguish between Anemone multifida Poir. var. multifida and Anemone patens L. var. multifida Pritzel.

Plants of the World (POWO, 2022) treats our plant as Pulsatilla nuttalliana (DC.) Bercht. & J.Presl., a strictly North American entity. Anemone patens var. multifida is not accepted, and is treated as a synonym of Pulsatilla patens subsp. multifida (Pritz.) Zämelis, with its distribution mapped as eastern European Russia to Kamchatka and northern China.

 

Literature Cited:
- James, Edwin, ed., 1823.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Aquilegia coerulea;

Area List: Golden.  

Aquilegia coerulea E. James “Colorado Blue Columbine”

Two collections, both on Lookout Mountain, and both more than 100 years ago. Most Jefferson County collections are in the foothills of the Front Ranges. Colorado state collections are in the mountains from the Front Range to the west.

Described by Edwin James from a collection he made at Elephant Rock, near Palmer Lake, El Paso County.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Aquilegia saximontana;

Area List: Golden.  

Aquilegia saximontana Rydb. “Rocky Mountain Columbine”

One collection on Lookout Mountain well more than 100 years ago. The only collection of our plant made in Jefferson County. Most Colorado state collections are well into the mountains, with a little concentration around Torrey and Gray Peaks.

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Clematis columbiana;

Area List: Golden.  

Clematis columbiana (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray “Rock Clematis”

There are three collections on Lookout Mountain that may be within Golden s.l.. I have not seen this; C. ligusticifolia is more common around Golden.

The plant was originally named Atragene columbiana Nutt. from a Nathaniel Wyeth collection on his return from Oregon Territory in 1833. Atragene is a Linnean name that DeCandolle reduced to a section of Clematis in 1818. Weber & Witmann (2012) continue to treat it at the rank of genus. Ackerfield (2015) accepts Clematis columbiana (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray, placing Atragene columbiana Nutt. in synonomy.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Clematis hirsutissima;

Area List: Golden.  

Clematis hirsutissima Pursh “Hairy Clematis, Sugar Bowls”

 

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Clematis orientalis;  Notes on Clematis ligusticifolia/i>;
• Kinney Run Trail:   near Eagle Ridge Drive;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1970, Clematis ligustifolia

Area List: Golden.  

Clematis ligusticifolia Nutt. “Western White Clematis”

Fairly common around Golden s.l. Typically I associate this species with more mesic sites perhaps along the edges of riparian zones. However, I have also collected it in a partially-filled in mining pit on Eagle Ridge.

The name was published by Torrey & A. Gray (1838, v. 1, p. 9) in their Flora of North America from a manuscript by Thomas Nuttall. Nuttall was describing a plant he collected on the Snake River in 1834 on his trip to Oregon Territory.

The third Clematis found in Golden is C. orientalis, a List B noxious weed.

 

Literature Cited:
- Jabbour, Florian, and Susanne S. Renner, 2012.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Delphinium carolinianum;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1440, 15 Jun 2016;  Coll. No. 2359, 12 Jun 2020;

Area List: Golden.  

Delphinium carolinianum ssp. virescens (Nutt.) R.E. Brooks “Plains Larkspur”

The Plains Larkspur — Delphinium carolinianum subsp. virescens — is found occasionally throughout Golden s.l. I think it is a little later than Nuttall's Larkspur and, just when it seems there will not be any, the Plains Larkspurs begin to bloom. It has been collected or observed in all the open spaces of Golden. Generally, the Plains Larkspur is found on the plains and just barely into the foothills. There are a few collections west of the Continental Divide. However, these may be outliers or misidentifications.

Of the three larkspurs known from Golden s.l., this is the only one that is usually white. The other two D. geyeri and D. nuttallianum are typically blue.

The Plains Larkspur was first described by Thomas Nuttall (1818), as being on the plains of the Missouri. Presumably, Nuttall also collected it. However, so far I have not found a collection or reference to a type.

Delphinium is very much a global genus and phylogenetic data (Jabbour and Renner, 2012) suggests that it originated in early Oligocene, possibly in the Mediterranean region, and crossed into North America from Asia in the Pliocene.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2359, Delphinium carolinianum subsp. virescens
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1440, Delphinium carolinianum subsp. virescens

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Delphinium geyeri;

Area List: Golden.  

Delphinium geyeri Greene “Geyer's Larkspur”

Just three collections in the south west margin of Golden s.l. and an observation on North Table Mountain. One collection “plains at base of Lookout Mountain” may be in the Survey Field, though the author has not seen it there. Collections in Jefferson County are along the base of the Front Range. Colorado state collections tend to be along the Front Range from Morrison north, and then out on the Pawnee National Grassland.

The name was applied by Greene (1893) who cited collections by Nuttall and Geyer.

 

Literature Cited:
- Walpers, Wilhelm Gerhard, 1842-1847.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Delphinium nuttallianum;

Area List: Golden.  

Delphinium nuttallianum Pritz. “Twolobe Larkspur”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Myosurus minimus;
• North Table Loop:   near Golden Cliffs;
• Field Notes:  Thursday, June 2nd;
Full Size ImageTiny Mousetails (Myosurus minimus) on top of North Table Mountain.

Area List: Golden.  

Myosurus minimus L. “Tiny Mousetail”

Around Golden s.l., this tiny little plant has been found only on top of North Table Mountain, in drying ponds and muddy places. A little more broadly, in Jefferson County, it has been collected numerous times at Rocky Flats. Otherwise widely scattered throughout Colorado except the eastern plains. Native to Colorado, and much of the United States and Europe.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ranunculus acriformis;

Area List: Golden.  

Ranunculus acriformis A. Gray “Sharpleaf Buttercup”

One collection near Golden s.l. in Mount Vernon Canyon. However, also compare to Loraine Yeatts #4618, which was originally determined R. sceleratus, but one voucher (COLO500167) has been annotated R. acriformis.

Distinguished from R. acris by a longer beak on the achene.

 

Literature Cited:
- Withering, William, 1796.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ranunculus aquatilis var. diffusus;

Area List: Golden.  

Ranunculus aquatilis L. var. diffusus With. “Threadleaf Crowfoot”

In Golden s.l., Ranunculus aquatilis L. var. diffusus With. “Threadleaf Crowfoot” has been found only in Lake Vaca on top of NorthTable Mountain. Most Jefferson County collections of our plant are from intensely-collected Rocky Flats. Most Colorado state collrctions are in the mountains with just a few out on the plains.

Described by Withering (1796) from plants in England, with little comment or discussion of the plants from elsewhere.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ranunculus cymbalaria;

Area List: Golden.  

Ranunculus cymbalaria Pursh “Alkali Buttercup”

The only collection of Ranunculus cymbalaria Pursh “Alkali Buttercup” in Golden s.l. was by the author at Lake Vaca on top of North Table Mountain. There are few other collections in Jefferson County, mostly in muddy areas on the plains. Colorado state collections are scattered in the state except in the highest mountains. The author has also collected it in Esmeralda County, Nevada, and Mono County, California.

Our plant was described by Pursh (1814, v. 2, p. 392) from plants he had seen in saline marshes of Onondago, New York.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ranunculus glaberrimus ellipticus;

Area List: Golden.  

Ranunculus glaberrimus Hook. var. ellipticus (Greene) Greene “Sagebrush Buttercup”

Collected in 1872 in "Golden City" by E. L. Greene, and then not again until 2020 when it was collected in Apex Park by the author. Several Jefferson County collections along the edge of the Front Range. Colorado state collections are mostly in the mountains below 10,000 feet.

The species was described by Hooker (1829) from collections by Douglas. The variety was first published at the rank of species (Greene, 1890) citing collections from mountain districts of Colorado, Utah, and Nevada to eastern California. Greene (18920 then reduced our plant to rank of variety under R. glaberrimus citing a type colleced near Truckee, California.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ranunculus sceleratus;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1960, Ranunculus sceleratus

Area List: Golden.  

Ranunculus sceleratus L. “Cursed Buttercup”

Collected on North and South Table Mountains, in damp soil, or at edges of ponds. Other locations in Jefferson County are damp places on the plains in the northern part of the county. Colorado state collections are widely scattered throughout the state.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) as being found in trenches and marshes of Europe, though today we describe its native range as temperate Eurasia, north Africa, Ethiopia to Rwanda, central & eastern Canada to central & eastern U.S.A.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Berberis repens;

Area List: Golden.  

Berberis repens Lindl. “Creeping Barberry”

“Creeping Barberry” — Berberis repens Lindl. — has been collected or observed in every Golden s.l. open space. There are not very many collections in Jefferson County, and those are mainly right along the Front Range, but I suspect it is far more common than the number of collections would imply. The plant is not found on the plains, but is common from the Front Range west.

According to Lindley (1828), seed was collected by the Lewis & Clark party, from which plants raised in American, then sold, and one growing in the Garden of the Horticultural Society (London) was then described by Lindley.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Argemone hispida;

Area List: Golden.  

Argemone hispida A. Gray “Rough Prickly Poppy”

Two collections, one definitely from Golden s.l., and one probably just south in Mount Vernon Canyon. The few collections of this species, are along the base of the Front Range. Colorado collections are also along the Front Range and in the interior valleys.

Described by Gray (1849) from a collection around Santa Fe, also noting collections by Fremont and Wislizenus.

Distinguished from the next primarily on the density of prickles on the stem.

 

Literature Cited:
- Ownbey, Gerald B., 1958.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Argemone polyanthemos;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1484, 6 Jul 2016;
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1484, Argemone polyanthemos

Area List: Golden.  

Argemone polyanthemos (Fedde) G.B. Ownbey “Crested Prickly Poppy”

Very pretty and very stickery, “Crested Prickly Poppy” — Argemone polyanthemos (Fedde) G.B. Ownbey — is found in all the open spaces of Golden s.l. This vegetative parts of this very pretty flower are so prickly that it is sometimes mistaken for a cactus. Similarly Be a little careful of the orange latex-bearing sap as it can be very sticky.

Jefferson County collections are primarily along the Front Range with a few collections up into the foothills. Similarly, most Colorado collections are along and barely into foothills of the Front Range, and scattered along the southern border including the southwest part of the state. There are fewer collections in New Mexico, including its type locality of Santa Fe.

The first collection of A. polyanthemos was very likely made by Edwin James, MD, on June 20, 1820, just west of Gothenburg, Nebraska. Unfortunately, James gave it the name of A. alba, a name that was not available because it was previously used by Rafinesque (1817). Torrey & Gray (1838) do not mention James' prickly poppy in their Flora of North America and the plant was treated as A. mexicana var. albiflora until Fedde (1909).

I have placed those collections determined A. intermedia Sweet and A. intermedia auct. non Sweet into A. polyanthemos. A. intermedia is a confused name that cannot be resolved to any species of Argemone with assurance (Ownbey, 1958).

Full Size Image
Flower of Coll. No. 1484, Argemone polyanthemos
Full Size Image
Leaf-cutting bee cutting semi-circular segments from petals of Argemone polyanthemos.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Corydalis aurea;
• North Table Loop:   along trail;
• Field Notes:   along trail;
Full Size ImageCorydalis aurea along the North Table Loop.

Area List: Golden.  

Corydalis aurea Willd. “Scrambled Eggs”

An annual or possibly biennial found occasionally on North and South Table Mountains. Bright yellow flowers.

The plant was first collected in Canada, and taken to the Berlin garden, grown there, and described by Willdenow (1809).

Scattered around Jefferson County, and widely distributed in Colorado in mountains and foothills, with a few found out in the plains, in places such as blow-out sand, or along streams.

 

Literature Cited:
- Hopkins, Milton, 1937.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Arabis pycnocarpa;

Area List: Golden.  

Arabis pycnocarpa M. Hopkins var. pycnocarpa “Cream Flower Rockcress”

The only Arabis remaining in Colorado after the group was split apart, mostly into Boechera, but also Turritis, Arabis pycnocarpa M. Hopkins var. pycnocarpa “Cream Flower Rockcress” has been colleted on North and South Table Mountains and Tin Cup Ridge. Jefferson County collections on the plains have been at some of the higher elevation sites, such as Rocky Flats and Ranson/Edwards, though not at Chatfield Farms, plus a few collections in the interior of the county. State-wide, most Colorado collections were made in the interior forests, meadows, and grasslands.

The name A. pycnocarpa M. Hopkins (1937) was proposed to separate a strictly American plants from the European name of A. hirsuta.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Boechera fendleri;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1812, 10 May 2018;   Coll. No. 1839, 17 May 2018;
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1839, Boechera fendleri
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1812, Boechera fendleri

Area List: Golden.  

Boechera fendleri (S.Watson) W.A.Weber “Fendler's Rockcress”

“Fendler's Rockcress” — Boechera fendleri (S.Watson) W.A.Weber (Syn: Arabis fendleri (S. Watson) Greene ) — has been collected on North and South Table Mountains. It is probably more probably more common than the number of collections would suggest, but is easily overlooked. See the photo at left; there are six plants in bloom between the field press and field notebook.

The author has also seen it at Ranson/Edwards and there are several collections from Rocky Flats. Found in Colorado from the Front Range to the west, and also in Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico.

The type was collected by Augustus Fendler (no. 27, 1847) in New Mexico. The holotype is at GH, isotypes at K, MO, UC. Gray did not publish the name in Plantae Fendlerianae Novi-Mexicanae (Gray, 1849), nor did he refer to Fendler coll. no. 27. It was not published until Watson's (1878) revision of Gray's Syntopical Flora of North America.

 

Literature Cited:
- Britton, Nathaniel Lord, et al., 1894.
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Descurainia incisa;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2464, 19 May 2021;

Area List: Golden.  

Descurainia incisa (Engelm.) Britton “ Mountain Tansy Mustard”

“Mountain Tansy Mustard” — Descurainia incisa (Engelm.) Britton “ and the next (D. pinnata) are often mistaken for each other. Consequently, one will find vouchers of the same collection annotated as the other. That being the case, I believe there are two collections of D. incisa in Golden s.l., both from South Table Mountain, plus an additional collection from Clear Creek Canyon, very near to Golden s.l. There is one other Jefferson County collection from Lakewood. It is determined ssp. viscosa, which is now treated as a synonym of ssp. incisa. Colorado-wide, collections of D. incisa are made from the highest plains to the Utah border.

Originally named Sisymbrium incisum Engelm. in Gray's (1849) Plantae Fendlerianae, it was placed in Descurainia by Britton, et al. (1894) as part of a larger effort to standardize nomenclature.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2464, Descurainia incisa ssp. incisa

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Descurainia pinnata;

Area List: Golden.  

Descurainia pinnata (Walter) Britton “Western Tansymustard”

Similar to the previous, Descurainia pinnata (Walter) Britton “Western Tansymustard” is only known in Golden s.l. from a single voucher of a collection on South Table Mountain. Another voucher of this collection has been annotated D. incisa. Other collections from Jefferson County are clustered in the northern part, and most of them are from Rocky Flats. Somewhat more common in Colorado, collections are scattered around the state.

First named Erysimum pinnatum Walter (1788), Nuttall (1818) placed it in Sisymbrium, and finally consolidated as Descurainia pinnata (Walter) Britton (1892).

 

Literature Cited:
- Fernald, M. L., 1934.
- Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste, 1783.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Draba reptans;
• Glossary:  whitlow;

Area List: Golden.  

Draba reptans (Lam.) Fernald “Carolina Whitlow Grass”

Draba reptans (Lam.) Fernald “Carolina Whitlow Grass” has been collected in “Golden,” on South Table Mountain, and at the Magic Mountain Archeological Dig. The writer has collected it twice at Ranson/Edwards but has not seen it in Golden s.l. Further afield in Jefferson County this tiny little annual has been collected at Rocky Flats and Beaver Brook. Generally, it is found early in the botanic season on dry slopes, rocky outcrops, and in grasslands, throughout Colorado, except on the eastern plains and the high mountains.

The common name Whitlow Grass refers to members of the genus being formerly used to treat a viral infection of fingers and toes and comes from the Middle English whitflawe or “white flow.”

First placed in Arabis as A. reptans by Lamarck (1783), it bounced around until Fernald (1934) placed it in Draba.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1376, Draba reptans

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Erysimum asperum;

Area List: Golden.  

Erysimum asperum (Nutt.) DC. “Prairie Wallflower”

Collected on Lookout Mountain and below Lookout Mountain (probably the Survey Field), with several older collections giving a location of “Golden” Also reported on North Table Mountain.

Collected thoughout Colorado, though more commonly along the northern Front Range and in southeast Colorado. Tends to occur more on prairies, sand dunes, roadsides, bluffs, sandhills along stream banks, knolls, and open plains. through west-central North America.

Less common in Golden s.l. than E. capitatum from which it differs by details of the fruit, or the position in which the fruit is held, but is more commonly found on hillsides, sry slopes, and meadows.

 

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward Lee, 1891-97.
- Hooker, Sir William Jackson, 1829-1840.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Erysimum capitatum;

Area List: Golden.  

Erysimum capitatum (Hook.) Greene “Sanddune Wallflower”

Found throughout Golden s.l.. though rarely in large numbers. Found mostly along the Front Range in Jefferson County. Similarly, found throughout Colorado, though with just a few collections on the eastern plains.

First described by Douglas and published in Hooker (1829) as Chieranthus capitatus, and later moved to Erysimum capitatum by Greene (1891), who was then writing about the flora of middle California.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2474, Erysimum capitatum

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Noccaea fendleri glauca;

Area List: Golden.  

Noccaea fendleri (A. Gray) Holub ssp. glauca (A. Nelson) Al-Shehbaz & M. Koch “Alpine Pennycress”

Actual collections of Noccaea fendleri (A. Gray) Holub ssp. glauca (A. Nelson) Al-Shehbaz & M. Koch “Alpine Pennycress” are only from Lookout Mountain, and thus may be in Golden s.l., plus there is one observation about mid-slope that is definitely within the limits of this flora. There are several other collections around Jefferson County, including the author's collections at Ranson/Edwards, but no collections from Rocky Flats, and a few more from the interior of the county. Colorado collections are mainly from the Front Range west, up to 14,000 feet, though not in the valley bottoms.

Ours was first recognized by Aven Nelson (1896) in his First Report on the Flora of Wyoming as Thlaspi alpestre var. glaucum then elevated to by rank of species by Nelson (1898) when he had seen more material. It remained in Thlaspi until 1998 when phylogenetic work showed Noccaea to be a distinct species. Subsequent reorganizations placed our plant as a subspecies of Noccaea fendleri.

 

Literature Cited:
- Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A., and Steve L. O'Kane, 2002.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Physaria montana;

Area List: Golden.  

Physaria montana (A. Gray) Greene “Mountain Bladderpod”

“Mountain Bladderpod” — Physaria montana (A. Gray) Greene — is very common in Golden s.l. and has been found in all the open spaces. Collections in Jefferson County are clustered around Golden s.l., Chatfield Farms, and Rocky Flats, with a few collections in the central county foothills. There are no collections from the interior of southern Jefferson County.

First described as Vesicaria montana A. Gray from a Hall & Harbour collection. Watson (1888) placed the plant in Lesquerella a rather large genus in the Brassicaceae. Greene (1891) placed the plant in Physaria without referring to Watson's Lesquerella, perhaps he did not know of it. Greene's proposal was ignored, e.g., Gray (1895) Syntopical Flora of North America. Al-Shehbaz & O'Kane (2002) moved most Lesquerella to Physaria as indicated by phylogenetic analysis, thus elevating Greene's placement to the accepted name for the taxon.

Some synonyms of Physaria montana, specifically Vesicaria montana and Lesquerella montana, are treated as accepted names in the SEINet taxon tree. Searches for all three names are required to ensure that records for all vouchers are returned.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Rorippa palustris;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1938, Rorippa palustris

Area List: Golden.  

Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser “Bog Yellow-Cress”

Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser “Bog Yellow-Cress” is known in Golden s.l. from only one collection at the Magic Mountain archeological dig. There are a few other collections in Jefferson County, including the author's collection at Ranson/Edwards and a collection at Rocky Flats. Colorado collections are scattered around the state, though not out on the eastern plains.

Originally treated as a variety of Sisymbrium amphibium by Linnaeus (1753), it was elevated to rank of species by Leysser (1783), and moved to Rorippaby Besser (1822).

 

Literature Cited:
- Hitchcock, A. S., 1894.
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Rorippa sinuata;

Area List: Golden.  

Rorippa sinuata (Nutt.) Hitchc. “Spreading Yellowcress”

First published as Nasturtium sinuatum Nutt. ex. Torr. & A. Gray (1838). Collections by Nuttall are from his Arkansas and overland trail trips. Moved to Rorippa by Hitchcock (1894) Spring Flora of Manhattan without comment or explanation. The Manhattan referred to is the one in Kansas.

It seems a little suspicious to me that there is one collection each of three different Rorippa in Golden s.l. Of course, mine is correctly identified.

 

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward L., 1895.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Rorippa tenerrima;

Area List: Golden.  

Rorippa tenerrima Greene “Modoc Yellowcress”

Known from only one collection on North Table Mountain by the author, Rorippa tenerrima Greene “Modoc Yellowcress” and this is the first collection in Colorado since 1910. The plant was more commonly found between 1897 and 1910 along waterways in northern Colorado.

The species was described by E. L. Greene (1895b) from collections made in Modoc County, California.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Turritis glabra;

Area List: Golden.  

Turritis glabra L. “Tower Rockcress”

Collected sparingly in Golden s.l., only in the Survey Field and Apex Park, with a report from North Table Mountain. Mostly along the base of the Front Range, with one collection in the interior foothills. Generally known from the Colorado Front Range to the west.

   

Cleomaceae Bercht. & J. Presl. — Bee Plant Family

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Cleomella serrulata;

Area List: Golden.  

Cleomella serrulata (Pursh) Roalson & J. C. Hall “Rocky Mountain Beeplant”

There is one collection, made at Heritage Square by Ernest H. Brunquist in connection with the Peabody Museum archeological dig. There is also a report from North Table Mountain, and an observation by the author in Tucker Gulch near the 1st Street bridge. Jefferson County collections are distributed along the base of the Front Range. Otherwise, collections in the state are well-distributed to the counties.

First described by Pursh (1814) from a Lewis & Clark collection, it was placed in Peritoma by deCandolle (1824). It resided there until phylogenetic data suggested it was best placed in Cleomella s.l. (Roalson, et al., 2015).

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Polanisia dodecandra;

Area List: Golden.  

Polanisia dodecandra (L.) DC. “Sandyseed Clammyweed”

One collection in Golden s.l., by Loraine Yeatts on South Table Mountain. Jefferson County locations are along the base of the Front Range and then up Clear Creek Canyon. Colorado state collections are mostly along the base of the Front Range, and then out on the eastern plains, with a few collections scattered in the mountain interior.

First named Cleome dodecandra L., then placed in Polanisia Raf. by deCandolle (1824).

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John G., 1828.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Sedum lanceolatum;

Area List: Golden.  

Sedum lanceolatum Torr. “Spearleaf Stonecrop”

“Spearleaf Stonecrop” — Sedum lanceolatum Torr. — is the common succulent along the Front Range. In Golden s.l., it has been collected on South Table Mountain and in the mouth of Clear Creek Canyon, and observed on North Table Mountain and other places. It is probably one of those very common plants that are often overlooked by collectors.

Sedum lanceolatum Torr. was first collected by Edwin James MD, botanist of the Stephen Long expedition of 1820. James did not record the collection in his diary, so we only know it was collected somewhere in Jefferson, Douglas, or El Paso Counties. John Torrey (1827) described the plant in his first account of plants collected on the Long expedition.

This little succulent has been collected throughout Jefferson County, though more intensely in the northern part of the county. The author has collected it at Ranson/Edwards, Clear Creek Canyon, and the Buffalo Creek Recreation Area. Colorado collections are mostly from the Front Range westward.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Jamesia americana;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2236, Jamesia americana.

Area List: Golden.  

Jamesia americana Torr. & A. Gray “Fivepetal Cliffbush”

“Fivepetal Cliffbush” — Jamesia americana Torr. & A. Gray — has been collected on South Table Mountain and in the mouth of Clear Creek Canyon. It should also be found in Apex Park. There are collections throughout the foothills region of Jefferson County. Generally found along in the Front Range of Colorado.

The plant was collected by Edwin James MD in 1820, but the location of the collection was not recorded. It could have been anywhere from Adams County south along the Front Range to Fremont County.

 

Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustus Pyramus, 1836.
- Torrey, John G., 1828.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Heuchera bracteata;

Area List: Golden.  

Heuchera bracteata (Torr.) Ser. “Bracted Alumroot”

One collection on Lookout Mountain, and several observations along the Gateway segment of the Peaks to Plains Trail and the Welch Ditch. Jefferson County collections are scattered in the foothills in the north part of the county. Nearly all Colorado state collections are found in the Front Ranges north of Cańon City. Native to Colorado and Wyoming.

Described by Torrey (1828) as Tiarella? bracteata from a collection by Dr. Edwin James someplace between Platte Canyon and Pikes Peak. Placed in Heuchera as H. bracteata by DeCandolle (1830, v. 4, p. 52).

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Heuchera parvifolia;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1655, Heuchera parvifolia

Area List: Golden.  

Heuchera parvifolia Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray “Littleleaf Alumroot”

Found on or below cliffs of North and South Table Mountains, usually in damp places. Also known from Rocky Flats and Chatfield.

Published by Torrey & A. Gray (1838) from a manuscript by Thomas Nuttall. Collections noted by Nuttall in the Blue Mountains of Oregon and by Dr. Edwin James in the Rocky Mountains.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Micranthes rhomboidea;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2262, 6 May 2020;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2262, Micranthes rhomboidea
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2262, Micranthes rhomboidea

Area List: Golden.  

Micranthes rhomboidea (Greene) Small “Diamondleaf Saxifrage”

Found occasionally on upper slopes of North and South Table Mountains, Lookout Mountain, and Apex Park. Found along the foothills of Jefferson County, north of Conifer or Aspen Park. Found at various places in the Rocky Mountains on both east and west slopes.

Described first by Greene (1898) as Saxifraga rhomboidea, then referred to Micranthes rhomboidea by Small (1905).

 

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ribes aureum;

Area List: Golden.  

Ribes aureum Pursh “Golden Currant”

Ribes aureum Pursh — “Golden Currant” — is common on slopes of Golden s.l. I have collected it on North Table Mountain, in Kinney Run, and Apex Park. It has also been seen or collected on South Table Mountain and Windy Saddle Park. It is generally found alond the foothills of the Front Range in Jefferson County, and scattered through most areas of Colorado, except the highest mountains.

Described by Pursh (1814) from Lewis & Clark collections and garden-grown specimens that he had seen.

 

Literature Cited:
- Douglas, David, 1830.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ribes cereum;

Area List: Golden.  

Ribes cereum Douglas “Wax Currant”

Very common small shrub in Golden s.l., “Wax Currant” — Ribes cereum Douglas — has been collected in all identified localities within the city. Known from nearly all places in Jefferson County, and nearly every county of Colorado.

Described by David Douglas (1830) from plants grown from seed he took to England in October 1827. He described the plant as occurring along the Columbia River from the Great Falls to the sources in the Rocky Mountains.

   

Native Rosaceae — Rose Family

 

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1834a.
- Roemer, M. J., 1847.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Roemer, 1847, publication details;  Notes on Amelanchier alnifolia;
• North Table Loop:   at Coll. No. 1800;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1800, 7 May 2018;  Coll. No. 2253, 30 Apr 2020;  Coll. No. 2267, 9 May 2020;

Locations: Chimney Gulch. Dakota Ridge. North Table Mountain Park. South Table Mountain Park. Tin Cup Ridge.

Area List: Golden.  

Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex M. Roem. “Saskatoon Serviceberry”

Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex M. Roem. “Saskatoon Serviceberry” and the related Amelanchier utahensis Koehne are found occasionally around Golden.

Around Golden, the author has collected A. alnifolia at North Table Mountain, Tin Cup Ridge, and Dakota Ridge. Loraine Yeatts made several collections at South Table Mountain, and there is one collection in Chimney Gulch by Hazel Schmoll. The specimens seen by the author are all quite small, usually on the order of one meter tall and the same in diameter.

There are also two collections of A. utahensis, one from Lookout Mountain, and one from “hog back near Golden.” This could be Dakota Ridge (North Hogback) or Tin Cup Ridge, the northward extension of Dinosaur Ridge into Golden. The author has not seen this serviceberry in Golden, but is familiar with it from collections made in eastern California.

Saskatoon Serviceberry has been collected sparingly around Jefferson County. In Colorado, it is found from the Rocky Mountain Front Range and in montainous areas to the west. On a national basis, be serviceberry is found in western North America.

Some authors, such as Ackerfield (2015), treat A. utahensis as a variety of A. alnifolia, explaining that the two taxa overlap in morphology and distribution, and that it can be difficult, if not impossible, to assign one name or the other to some specimens. For A. alnifolia the leaves are larger, usually glabrous, the petals are larger, and there are usually 5 styles.

The author citation “(Nutt.) Nutt. Ex M. Roem.” is curious. It seems that Nuttall (1818) first published Aronia alnifolia Nutt. from plant he saw in 1811 near Fort Mandan. Then Nuttall (1834a) used the name Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. from plants collected for him by Nathaniel Wyeth in 1833. It would seem that he accepted that the taxon should be in Amelanchier, but his simple listing of the name without specifying the basionym (a first name for the taxon) was an invalid naming, or nom. inval. It was not until Roemer (1847) that Amelanchier alnifolia was validly published from a description by Nuttall.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2253, Amelanchier alnifolia
Full Size Image
Habitat of Coll. No. 1800, Amelanchier alnifolia

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Amelanchier utahensis;

Area List: Golden.  

Amelanchier utahensis Koehne “Utah Service-Berry”

Two collections, one on Lookout Mountain and another on a hogback near Golden. Other Jefferson County collections tend to be up in the foothills. More common on the west slope of Colorado.

Koehne (1890) description is not readily available. Our Flora of Colorado (Ackerfield, 2015) treats our plant as a variety of A. alnifolia, whereas other sources, e.g., FNANM and POWO, treat them as distinct species. To distinguish the two, for A. utahensis the leaves are smaller and usually hairy above, the petals are smaller, and there are fewer style, usually only 2-4, rarely 5.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Cercocarpus montanus;
Full Size ImageMountain Mahogany (Cercocarpus montanus) on South Table Mountain.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2184, Cercocarpus montanus in fruit.

Area List: Golden.  

Cercocarpus montanus Raf. “Alder-Leaf Mountain Mahogany”

Collected or reported in every open space of Golden s.l.. Perhaps undercollected because of its commonality. Found throughout Jefferson County. Common on Colorado dry hillsides, oftern with pinyon-juniper, oaks, ponderosa pines, or Douglas fir, 4,000 to 9,500 ft.

Described by Rafinesque from a specimen collected by Edwin James of the Long Expedition, 1820, probably in present Jefferson County, Colorado. Rafinesque was somewhat frustrated by Torrey's reluctance to publish a new species name in assigning James' collection to C. fothergillides Humb. Bonpl. And Kunth.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2270.1, Cercocarpus montanus in bloom.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Crataegus succulenta;

Area List: Golden.  

Crataegus succulenta Schrad. ex Link “Fleshy Hawthorn”

Common along streams or gulches in Golden s.l., e.g., Kinney Run below Eagle Ridge. Found primarily along the base of the Front Range in Jefferson County. Colorado state distribution is similar, along the base of the Front Range north of Palmer Lake, and then scattered in other parts of the state.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Fragaria virginiana;

Area List: Golden.  

Fragaria virginiana Mill. “Virginia Strawberry”

One collection “… above Golden …,” a few more collections in Jefferson County from Meyer Ranch in the north to Lost Creek Wilderness in the south. Quite common in the higher mountain ranges of Colorado, including two collections by the author in Lake County near Leadville.

Described by Miller (1768, 8th ed.), with little comment, probably from Virginia. Its native range is eastern Canada to northern and eastern U.S.A. and northern Mexico.

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Lis, Richard, 2015.
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Holodiscus dumosus;

Locations: Welch Ditch.

Area List: Golden.  

Holodiscus dumosus (Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray) A. Heller “Rock Spiraea”

Rock Spiraea — Holodiscus dumosus (Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray) A. Heller — is found occasionally on rocky slopes. Expected mainly on canyon slopes, such as such as those along Welch Ditch in the mouth of Clear Creek Canyon, it is also found on the west-facing slope of North Table Mountain, and the east-facing slope of Eagle Ridge.

Most of the Jefferson County collections are near Golden, though there are two collections in southwest Jefferson County. More broadly in Colorado, it is found throughout the southern Rocky Mountains

To borrow from Kermit and Cookie Monster of Sesame Street, the hoped-for rectangle of nomenclature and taxonomy in Holodiscus is a wreck and a tangle. Weber & Wittmann (2012) accept only H. discolor, whereas Ackerfield (2015) accepts only H. dumosus. Meanwhile, Lis (2015) in his recently published treatment of Holodiscus in Flora of North America reduces H. dumosus to a variety of H. discolor. To be sure, the history of these names is a kind of mess, in part, for example, because Nuttall's manuscript describing H. dumosus was mentioned Torrey & Gray's (1838) Flora of North America but not published until 1847 in Hooker's London Journal of Botany.

I think similarly the common name of “Rock Spiraea” is unfortunate because it conflicts with the more-descriptive use of the same common name for Petrophytum caespitosum (Nutt.) Rydb.

 

Literature Cited:
- Coulter, John M., 1891.
- Torrey, John G., 1828.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Physocarpus monogynus;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1397, 8 Jun 2016;   Coll. No. 1658, 5 Jun 2017;  8 Jun 2018;

Area List: Golden.  

Physocarpus monogynus (Torr.) J.M. Coult. “Mountain Ninebark”

Found in the foothills and on slopes of the mesas generally in a slightly more moist or protected location.

Described by John Torrey (1828) as Spiraea monogyna from an Edwin James, MD, collection July 7, 1820, in ravines of the foothills of Sheep Canyon on the north side of South Platte Canyon. Placed in the genus Physocarpus by Coulter (1891)

Full Size Image
Habitat of Physocarpus monogynus on North Table Mountain.
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1658, Physocarpus monogynus
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1397, Physocarpus monogynus

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Potentilla fissa;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1099, Potentilla
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1099, Potentilla fissa

Area List: Golden.  

Potentilla fissa Nutt. ex Torr. & A.Gray “Bigflower Cinquefoil”

Collected on most mesas, mountains, and ridges around Golden s.l.. Found throughout Jefferson County and probably more common that the number of collections (48) would indicate.

Published in Torrey & A. Gray's (1838) Flora of North America from an manuscript written by Thomas Nuttall. Recent phylogenetic work suggests that this is one of several Potentilla that should be treated as a Drymocallis.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1911, Potentilla fissa

 

Literature Cited:
- Hooker, William J., 1830a.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Potentilla gracilis;

Area List: Golden.  

Potentilla gracilis Hook. “Slender Cinquefoil”

Known in Golden s.l. from only a single report on North Table Mountain (Zeise, 1976). There is a collection from Rocky Flats, and additional collections from the foothills in the interior of the county. Most Colorado state collections are in the interior Rocky Mountains.

The species was described by Hooker (1830)

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Potentilla norvegica;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1500, Potentilla norvegica

Area List: Golden.  

Potentilla norvegica L. “Norwegian Cinquefoil”

Collected on top of North Table Mountain on the west side of Vaca Lake. Jefferson County collections are in wet areas in the northern part of the county. Colorado state collections are along the Front Range, a little out on the Palmer Divide, and then scattered around the state, except for northwest Colorado.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) who knew it from Norway, Sweden, and Canada; its native range is subartic and subalpine nothern hemisphere.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1771.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Potentilla pensylvanica`;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2136, Potentilla pensylvanica

Area List: Golden.  

Potentilla pensylvanica L. “Prairie Cinquefoil”

One collection on the north side of North Table Mountain where it is quite common. Other Jefferson county collections are at the Majestic View Nature Center and the Flying J Ranch Park. Most Colorado collections are in the mountains.

Described by Linnaeus (1767) from Canada. We now consider it native to Spain, Italy, eastern Europe to Mongolia, subarctic America to west and central Europe.

 

Literature Cited:
- Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds., 1993+.
- Greene, Edward L., 1906c.
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Potentilla rivalis;

Locations: Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space Park. Vaca Lake.

Area List: Golden.  

Potentilla rivalis Nutt. “Brook Cinquefoil”

One collection by the author at Vaca Lake on top of North Table Mountain. There are seven collections in Jefferson County, most at Rocky Flats, but also one by the author at Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space.

Described in Torrey & A. Gray (1838) Flora of North America from a Thomas Nuttall manuscript. Nuttall gives the location as along the Lewis River. Both the present-day Snake River and the Salmon River have been called the Lewis River.

Ertter and Reveal (FNANM, 1993+) write in their discussion of Potentilla section Rivales that Potentilla rivalis is one of several similar-appearing Potentilla the others being P. norvegica, and P. supina. So similar that they have at times been placed in a single group, such as Tridophyllum (E. L. Greene, 1906). As it happens, I have collected all three species in northern Jefferson County, P. norvegica and P. rivalis on North Table Mountain, and P. rivalis and P. supina (ssp. paradoxa) at Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space Park. However, the physical similarity is not supported by molecular data, which instead scatters Potentilla norvegica, P. rivalis, and P. supina among the core Potentilla. Ertter and Reveal further state that existing herbarium annotations of P. biennis, P. rivales, and P. norvegica are not reliable, although the three species can be readily be readily distinduighed by the vestiture of proximal petioles and stems.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1682.1, Potentilla rivalis
Full Size Image
Ternate leaf of Coll. No. 1682.1, Potentilla rivalis

 

Literature Cited:
- Marshall, Humphry, 1785.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Prunus americana;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2443, 4 Sep 2020;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2443, Prunus americana

Area List: Golden.  

Prunus americana Marshall “American Plum”

Prunus (cherry, peach, and plum) is distinguished from Malus (apple) by the superior ovary and fruit in the form of a drupe.

P. americana has a reddish fruit which can be distinguished from the blue-purple fruit of P. domestica “European Plum.”

Described by Marshal (1785) in his catalog of American forest trees and shrubs.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2443, Prunus americana
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2443, Prunus americana

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1782.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Prunus pensylvanica;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1354, Prunus pensylvanica

Area List: Golden.  

Prunus pensylvanica L. f. “Pin Cherry”

Several collections of this native cherry, on North and South Table Mountains, North Washington Open Space, and Lookout Mountain. There are a few other collections in the county, mostly near Golden s.l., but also one in Golden Gate Canyon State Park and another southwest of Evergreen. Colorado state collections are along the Front Range with a few on the edges of mountains in the southern state.

Described by Linnaeus (1782) in his Supplementum as living in northern America. Now (Kew, 2022) known to be native to subartic America to United States, including Colorado, but not Utah, New Mexico, or Kansas and Nebraska.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Prunus virginiana;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1340, Prunus virginiana

Area List: Golden.  

Prunus virginiana L. “Chokecherry”

Very common in Golden s.l., Prunus virginiana L. “Chokecherry” is found in all open spaces and the mesas and hogbacks. It is found throughout the county. Colorado state collections are found throughout the state, including a few out on the plains.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) as living in Virginia, its native range is subarctic America to north, central, and eastern U.S.A.

 

Literature Cited:
- Bruneau, Anne, Julian R. Starr, and Simon Joly, 2007.  

Rosa L. “Rose”

We have three, or maybe four, taxa of Rosa L. native to Colorado and found in Jefferson County. Our current Flora of Colorado (Ackerfield, 2015) recognizes three taxa: R. arkansana, R. blanda, and R. acicularis ssp. sayi. R. woodsii is placed in synonomy with R. blanda. Our penultimate flora (Weber & Wittmann, 2012) recognized R. arkansana, R. sayi, and R. woodsii, with no mention of R. blanda.

 

Literature Cited:
- Lewis, Walter H., 1959.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Rosa acicularis ssp. sayi;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2545, Rosa acicularis var. sayi

Area List: Golden.  

Rosa acicularis Lindl. ssp. sayi (Schwein.) W. H. Lewis “Say's Acicular Rose”

Three collections, one by the author in the survey field; the other two at some level of Lookout Mountain. Jefferson County collections are in the lower Front Range foothills or at their base. Colorado state collections are scattered around the state from the Front Range to the west.

R. acicularis ssp. sayi is the North American subspecies of the Eurasian R. acicularis. Therefore anything properly determined R. acicularis in Colorado should be referred to subspecies sayi. Thomas Say was the zoologist on the Stephen H. Long expedition to the Rocky Mountains of 1820.

 

Literature Cited:
- Porter, Thomas C., and John M. Coulter, 1874.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Rosa arkansana;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1670, Rosa arkansana

Area List: Golden.  

Rosa arkansana Porter “Prairie Rose”

The Prairie Rose — Rosa arkansana Porter — is common in Golden s.l., collected or reported on North and South Table Mountains, North Washington Open Space, and Heritage Square. Most Jefferson County collections are on the plains in the northern part of the county. Colorado state collections are along the Front Range, with a few out on the plains, and a few in the lower elevations of the mountains.

Named by Porter (1874) for the collecting location on the banks of the Arkansas River near Cańon City by Townshend Brandegee, but also seen in the Raton Mountains and Texas.

 

Literature Cited:
- Lewis, Walter H., and Barbara Ertter, 2007.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Rosa woodsii;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 691, Rosa woodsii var. ultramontana

Area List: Golden.  

Rosa woodsii Lindl. “Mountain Rose”

Just a few collections, one on Eagle Ridge, the other in Vidler's Gulch, and one on Clear Creek. Jefferson County collections are scattered throughout the county, out on the plains and up in the foothills. Most Rosa woodsii collections in Jefferson County are undetermined as to subspecies. The few that are have been determined subsp. woodsii

There are many Colorado state collections, mostly in the mountains, but a few out on the plains. At the state level, nearly 2/3 are not determined to infraspecific names, and about 1/4 are determined variety ultramontana (SEINet, 2022).

The plant was described from plants grown from seed by J. Sabine, Royal Horticultural Society. While the location of the seed collection was described as near the Missouri River, the collector was not named. The name was published by Lindley in his Rosarum monographia, honoring Joseph Woods, an English Quaker architect, botanist and geologist born in the village of Stoke Newington, a few miles north of the City of London. The genus of ferns, Woodsia, is also named for Joseph Woods.

FNANM (1993+) proposes five subspecies, including ultramontana, see Lewis & Ertter (2007) for an explanation.

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John G., 1828.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Rubus deliciosus;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1091, Rubus deliciosus

Area List: Golden.  

Rubus deliciosus Torr. “Delicious Raspberry”

Rubus deliciosus Torr. “Delicious Raspberry” is very widely distributed throughout Golden s.l. from North and South Table Mountains on the east to Windy Saddle and Apex Parks on the west. Similarly, the plant is widely distributed in Jefferson County. At the state level, it is found throughout the central Rocky Mountains with an additional cluster in the Unaweep Canyon area of Mesa County.

Described by Torrey (1828) from collections by Dr. Edwin James; no date or location data available. Weber & Wittmann (2012) state that the collections were made at the mouth of Boulder Canyon. This is highly unlikely as there is no indication that Dr. James, or anyone else in Major Long's party were anywhere near Boulder Canyon.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Rubus idaeus var. strigosus;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2506, Rubus idaeus var. strigosus

Area List: Golden.  

Rubus idaeus L. var. strigosus (Michx.) Maxim. “American Red Raspberry”

A small number of collections from mountain slopes on the west side of Golden s.l. There are a few collections in Jefferson County, from the interior of the foothills to the highest plains, i.e., Rocky Flats. Colorado state collections are mostly from the interior core of the Rocky Mountains.

First described by Michaux (1803) as Rubus strigosus from the mountains of Pennsylvania and from Canada. Rubus idaeus is the source of most of the cultivated red and amber raspberries.

There are many names published for this plant and much dissonance between them. I am following our current Flora of Colorado (Ackerfield, 2015). Weber & Wittmann (2012) accept R. idaeus L. ssp. melanolasius (Dieck) Focke, whereas FNANM (1993+) and Kew (POWO, 2022) accept Rubus idaeus L. subsp. strigosus (Michx.) Focke.

 

Literature Cited:
- Don, George, 1831-1838.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Astragalus agrestis;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1402, Astragalus agrestis

Area List: Golden.  

Astragalus agrestis Douglas ex G. Don. “Purple Milkvetch”

Fairly common around Golden s.l., Astragalus agrestis Douglas ex G. Don. “Purple Milkvetch” has been collected on North and South Table Mountains, the Colorado School of Mines Survey Field, and in smaller open spaces such as the North Washington Open Space. It generally forms small colonies in short grasses, and is easily recognized by its upright capitate inflorescence.

Jefferson County collections are on the plains at the base of the Front Range. At the Colorado state level, this milkvetch is found along the Front Range, a few out on the plains, and in the interior valleys of the mountains.

The plant was first described by George Don (1832) from a manuscript written by David Douglas. Historical herbarium records suggest the plant was first collected in Colorado by Hall & Harbour (their no. 139) and by Charles C. Parry in their expedition of 1862. We really don't know where in Colorado these collections were made.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1398, Astragalus agrestis

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1813.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Astragalus crassicarpus;

Locations: North Washington Open Space.

Area List: Golden.  

Astragalus crassicarpus Nutt. “Groundplum Milkvetch”

This interesting milkvetch has an inflated fruit that look like large grapes or small plums. It is widespread around Golden, but not often seen. The best time to see this milkvetch in the field is mid- to late-May. When dry the fruits are still recognizable, just brown and hard.

First collected by Thomas Nuttall “ … above the River Platte … ” probably in 1811, it was published in a list of plants for sale from the garden of John Fraser in London (Nuttall, 1813).

Full Size Image
Astragalus crassicarpus “Groundplum Milkvetch”
Full Size Image
Habitat of Astragalus crassicarpus on North Table Mountain.

 

Literature Cited:
- Hooker, Sir William Jackson, 1829-1840.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Astragalus drummondii;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1141, Astragalus drummondii

Area List: Golden.  

Astragalus drummondii Dougl. ex Hook. “Drummond's Milkvetch”

Astragalus drummondii Dougl. ex Hook. — “Drummond's Milkvetch” — is common in Golden s.l. Being a tall milkvetch with white flowers, it is easy to recognize in the field.

Jefferson County collections are mostly on the plains adjacent to the Rocky Mountains front range. Colorado collections are on the prairies and slopes of central Colorado.

Described by Hooker (1831) from a David Douglas collection and manuscript.

Full Size Image
Fruit of Coll. No. 1141, Astragalus drummondii

 

Literature Cited:
- Don, George, 1831-1838.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Astragalus flexuosus;

Area List: Golden.  

Astragalus flexuosus G. Don “Flexible Milkvetch”

A common milkvetch, Astragalus flexuosus G. Don “Flexible Milkvetch,” has been collected in most Golden s.l. open spaces, though not all. It is usually found climbing on other forbs or subshrubs.

First described by George Don (1832), a Scottish botanist and plant collector, probably from plants grown from seed sent by David Douglas, collected near the Columbia River.

Jefferson County collections are from the northern part of the county, into the foothills as far as Centennial Cone. Colorado collections are generally from the foothills west and south, at lower elevations.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Astragalus laxmannii robustior;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1400, Astragalus laxmannii var. robustior

Area List: Golden.  

Astragalus laxmannii Jacq. var. robustior (Hook.) Barneby & S. L. Welsh “Prairie Milkvetch”

Astragalus laxmannii Jacq. var. robustior (Hook.) Barneby & S. L. Welsh “Prairie Milkvetch” is found occasionally in the intensely collected open spaces of North and South Table Mountains, and Heritage Square.

Jefferson County collections are along the Front Range and up into the foothills as far south as the Buffalo Creek Recreation Area. The Colorado distribution includes the Front Range, shortgrass prairie, and mountain valleys.

The species was first described by Jacquin (1776) and named for a patron of the Vienna Botanic Garden, Eric Laxmann. While Jacuin knew it from plants grown from seed from Imperial Russia, Pallas (1800) described it as A. adsurgens from Trans-Baikal to Mongolia. Hooker (1831) recognized the two species were the same, but left it as A. adsurgens while naming a variety robustior from the mountain valleys on the west slope of the Rocky Mountains using a manuscript by David Douglas. Barneby & Welsh (1996) published A. laxmannii var. robustior pertmiing us to use the A. laxmannii name of priority.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Astragalus parryi;

Area List: Golden.  

Astragalus parryi A. Gray “Parry's Milkvetch”

There is one report of Astragalus parryi A. Gray “Parry's Milkvetch” on North Table Mountain, and a collection by Ira W. Clokey on Lookout Mountain determined A. parryi, whereas possible duplicates are determined A. agrestis. Presence of A. parryi should be considered doubtful unless confirmed.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Astragalus shortianus;

Area List: Golden.  

Astragalus shortianus Torr. & A. Gray “Short's Milkvetch”

Astragalus shortianus Torr. & A. Gray “Short's Milkvetch” is found occasionally, with collections on North and South Table Mountains, plus I have found it on Tin Cup Ridge and in Kinney Run.

The plant was described by Torrey & Gray (1840) from a manuscript by Thomas Nuttall. Nuttall saw it in the “Rocky Mountains, towards the plains of the Oregon.”

 

Literature Cited:
- Willdenow, Carl L., 1797-1830.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Dalea candida;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2544, Dalea candida var. oligophylla

Area List: Golden.  

Dalea candida Willd. “White Prairie Clover”

Dalea candida Willd. “White Prairie Clover” is less common than the next, Dalea purpurea, but still found on North and South Table Mountains.

Described by Wildenow (1800, t. 3, pt. 2, p. 1337) in his 4th edition of Linnaeus' Species Plantarum

 

Literature Cited:
- Ventenat, Etienne P., Jacques M. Cels, and Henri J. Redoute, 1801.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Dalea purpurea;
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1197, Dalea purpurea

Area List: Golden.  

Dalea purpurea Vent. “Purple Prairie Clover”

“Purple Prairie Clover” — Dalea purpurea Vent. — is not particularly common in Golden s.l. either, having been collected on North Table Mountain, Heritage Square, and the Survey Field, but not on South Table Mountain.

Jefferson County collections are generally along the base of the Front Range foothills. Colorado collections are also along the Front Range foothills and out on the plains, with a scattering of collections in the mountain valleys.

The plant was found in Illinois by Michaux, who sent seeds (or plants?) to Jacques Cels who cultivated foreign plants in Paris. Etienne P. Ventenat (1800) described the plants in Cels' garden, illusteated by Pierre-Joseph Redoute.

Full Size Image
Inflorescence of Coll. No. 1197, Dalea purpurea

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1813.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Glycyrrhiza lepidota;

Area List: Golden.  

Glycyrrhiza lepidota Pursh “American Licorice”

Collected or observed on North and South Table Mountains and at Tin Cup Ridge. Likely in all Golden s.l. open spaces. Collections of the plant have been made throughout Colorado though most commonly along the Front Range foothills from Colorado Springs north, where it is usually found along natural or artificial watercourses and on floodplains.

Nuttall (1818) credits John Bradbury as first detecting this plant around Saint Louis. Though a name for the plant was first published by Nuttall (1813) this name is treated as invalid, and we use Pursh's (1814) name.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1222, Glycyrrhiza lepidota

 

Literature Cited:
- Egan, Ashley N., and James L. Reveal, 2009.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.
- Reveal, James L., Gary E. Moulton and Alfred E. Schuyler, 1999.
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1915.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ladeania lanceolata;

Area List: Golden.  

Ladeania lanceolata (Pursh) A. N. Egan & Reveal “Dune Scurfpea”

Known from two historic collections, Ladeania lanceolata (Pursh) A. N. Egan & Reveal “Dune Scurfpea” is possibly extirpated from Golden s.l. One of the historic collections was made by E. L. Greene in 1872. The location is simply “Golden City,” as Golden was known then. The other historic collection was made by J. R. Churchill in 1918, with location of “Golden, railroad track.”

There is one other collection of this plant from Jefferson County, that of Lincoln Constance and Reed Rollins, made June 24, 1937, near Mount Morrison. Colorado collections are scattered around the plains and interior valleys, including northwest Colorado. The author has collected this plant at Alameda Well, Mono County, California, suggesting that it might be a Cordilleran plant, except that it is found out on the plains as far east as central Nebraska and Kansas.

The plant was first described by Pursh (1814) as Psoralea lanceolata. Then Rydberg (1919) moved it to Psoralidium lanceolatum. For a long time, the sheet described by Pursh (1814) was thought to be a Lewis & Clark collection. However, Reveal et al. (1999) showed that this sheet could only have been gathered by Thomas Nuttall in 1811. Egan & Reveal (2009) proposed Ladeania lanceolata to accommodate taxa left behind when Psoralidium tenuiflorum (Pursh) Rydberg was transferred to Pediomelum Rydberg because of previously published evidence on phylogenetic relationships.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Lathyrus eucosmus;

Area List: Golden.  

Lathyrus eucosmus Butters & H. St. John “Bush Vetchling”

Lathyrus eucosmus Butters & H. St. John “Bush Vetchling” has been collected on North and South Table Mountains.

Mostly out on the plains away from the foothills. Colorado collections are mostly from Denver south and along the southern border of the state. The plant is mostly know from Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, with a few collections in Utah.

It was described by Butters & St. John (1917) in a paper that was (im my mind) intended to clarify relations between the various Lathyrus of the New World. While the type was designated as a collection by A. A. & E. Gertrude Heller, no. 3658, Santa Fe, New Mexico, the plant was also collected by Edwin James (1820) and A. Fendler (1847) both in New Mexico.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Lathyrus lanszwertii;

Area List: Golden.  

Lathyrus lanszwertii Kellogg “Lanszwert's Pea”

Two collections and an observation from North and South Table Mountains, and Apex Gulch.

About half of the specimens from Jefferson County are determined variety leucanthus, whereas the remainder are undetermined to infraspecific names. The author collected one at Lippincott Ranch and put the variety name laetivirens (Greene ex Rydberg) S. L. Welsh on it. It is a question of the shape and length of the tendril.

 

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Lupinus argenteus;

Area List: Golden.  

Lupinus argenteus Pursh “Loosely Flowered Silver Lupine”

The “Loosely Flowered Silver Lupine” — Lupinus argenteus Pursh — has been found in every open space in Golden s.l. except South Table Mountain.

Jefferson County collections are found from the base of the Rocky Mountain foothills up into the Front Range. There was just one collection as far south as the Buffalo Creek Recreation Area. That collection is determined var. rubricaulis. In 2021, the author collected a small lupine along Morrison Creek that he thinks is variety fulvomaculatus. The Lupine is found throughout Colorado, except on the eastern plains. It is also found across the American Cordillera.

A Lewis & Clark collection on the Kooskoosky (Clearwater) River was described by Pursh (1814). Plants Of The World (Kew, 2022) accepts 8 varieties, five of which occur in Colorado, and a somewhat different five varieties occur in California.

 

Literature Cited:
- Allred, Kelly W., 2020.
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Lupinus caudatus;

Area List: Golden.  

Lupinus caudatus Kellogg “Kellogg's Spurred Lupine”

It is not clear whether Lupinus caudatus Kellogg “Kellogg's Spurred Lupine” occurs in Golden s.l. or not. There is one collection on Lookout Mountain that may be in Golden s.l. In the meantime, the author has collected the lupine twice in northern Jefferson County, at Ranson/Edwards and at Lippincott Ranch.

Of those collections of Lupinus caudatus in Jefferson County determined to an infraspecific name, nearly all are determined var. argophyllus. The name was first applied by A. Gray (1848) to a collection by Agustus Fendler in Santa Fe, New Mexico, in 1847.

It is looking like our variety argophyllus will be moving to L. argenteus Pursh from L. caudatus Kellogg (Allred, 2020).

 

Literature Cited:
- Colorado State University, 2019.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Oxytropis lambertii;
• Spur Social Trail:   top of mesa;
• Field Notes:  Thursday, June 2nd;

Area List: Golden.  

Oxytropis lambertii Pursh “Purple Locoweed”

Quite common, collected in most open spaces around Golden. The first plant collected in Golden s.l. (Edward L. Geeene, May 1, 1870). Toxic to cattle, sheep, horses, and elk. All plant parts contain Swainsonine, an indolizide alkaloid that inhibits an enzyme essential for normal sugar metabolism in cells.

Described by Pursh (1814) from specimens (seeds) collected by Bradbury on the Missouri that Pursh saw growing in Lambert's garden.

Full Size Image
Purple Locoweed (Oxytropis lambertii) on top of North Table Mountain.

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Oxytropis sericea;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2576, Oxytropis sericea

Area List: Golden.  

Oxytropis sericea Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray “White Locoweed”

There is only one collection of Oxytropis sericea Torr. & A. Gray “White Locoweed” in Golden s.l., made by Stan Smookler near Castle Rock. There are a few other collections of this taxon in Lakewood and Morrison that give confidence that it is O. sericea rather than the much more common O. lambertii. The two species are known to hybridize.

The plant was described in Torrey & A. Gray (1838) Flora of North America from a manuscript written by Thomas Nuttall.

Jefferson County collections are mostly from the base of the Front Range, with one at Flying J Ranch. Colorado collections are scattered around the state from the far eastern plains, to mountain valleys, and northwest Colorado.

 

Literature Cited:
- Egan, Ashley N., and James L. Reveal, 2009.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Pediomelum tenuiflorum;

Area List: Golden.  

Pediomelum tenuiflorum (Pursh) A. N. Egan “Slimflower Scurfpea”

Another common forb found in nearly all Golden s.l. open spaces, Pediomelum tenuiflorum (Pursh) A. N. Egan “Slimflower Scurfpea” is found right along the base of the foothills. First collected by Lewis & Clark on the Big Bend of the Missouri and named Psoralea tenuiflora by Pursh (1814), it was for a time known as Psoralidium tenuiflorum (Pursh) Rydberg, until molecular genetic data showed that it really belonged in Pediomelum tenuiflorum (Pursh) A. N. Egan & Reveal (2009). Colorado collections are found mostly from the base of the Front Range east across the plains.
Full Size Image
Pediomelum tenuiflorum

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Nelson A., 1898.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Thermopsis rhombifolia;
• Glossary:  divaricate;

Area List: Golden.  

Thermopsis rhombifolia var. divaricarpa (A. Nelson) Isely “Spreadfruit Goldenbanner”

Found mostly meadows or somewhat mesic sites among the ridges and mesas around Golden s.l., such as North and South Table Mountains, and Tin Cup Ridge. Widely distributed throughout Jefferson County, sometimes in small colonies.

There are three different forms of this plant in Colorado, distinguished by the shape of the fruit. Sometimes the three forms are treated as varieties of a single species, sometimes as species in their own right. In Golden s.l., the fruit sticks straight out from the stem, or is maybe curved upwards slightly. This would be the form divaricarpa, originally proposed by Aven Nelson (1898). Our current Flora of Colorado (Ackerfield, 2015) treats divaricarpa as a variety of Thermopsis rhombifolia.

Full Size Image
Thermopsis rhombifolia var. divaricarpa, in flower, no fruit yet.
Full Size Image
Patch of Thermopsis rhombifolia var. divaricarpa, Coll. No. 1347.

 

Literature Cited:
- Willdenow, Carl L., 1797-1830.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Vicia americana;

Area List: Golden.  

Vicia americana Willd. “American Vetch”

Commonly encountered around Golden s.l., Vicia americana Willd. “American Vetch” has been found on North and South Table Mountains, the Survey Field, and Tin Cup Ridge. Described by Willdenow (1800) in his 4th edition of Linnaeus' Species Plantarum as living in Pennsylvania, it is considered native to nearly all of North America. It is typically found on the plains of Jefferson County at the base of the foothills. American vetch is very common in Colorado, being found in every county.

 

Literature Cited:
- Ewan, Joseph A., 2005.
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Vicia ludoviciana;

Area List: Golden.  

Vicia ludoviciana Nutt. “Louisiana Vetch”

Only one collection under Castle Rock on South Table Mountain, and another in Jefferson County at Chatfield. In Colorado uncommon in meadows and dry hillsides.

The plant was first described by Torrey & A. Gray (1838) from a manuscript by Thomas Nuttall. Nuttall collected the plant on the Red River, but also refers to Mr. Tainturier, a resident of New Orleans who corresponded with Hooker (Ewan, 2005). A Dr. Leavenworth also sent some material from Texas to Torrey & A. Gray

 

Literature Cited:
- James, Edwin, ed., 1823.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Geranium caespitosum;

Area List: Golden.  

Geranium caespitosum James “Pineywoods Geranium”

Broadly distributed in Golden s.l. from North and South Table Mountains to Apex Park, Geranium caespitosum James “Pineywoods Geranium” is also widely distributed in Jefferson County, and has been found in every Colorado county except the extreme northwest and the easternmost plains.

First recognized by Edwin James, M.D., botanist on the Stephen H. Long expedition of 1820, and named G. caespitosum in James (1823), it has eleven synonyms at the specific rank, and another ten infraspecific names (POWO, Kew, 2022). In Colorado we do not accept infraspecific names for this species.

This Geranium is broadly distributed in North America, from Wyoming to Mexico, and Nevada to Texas.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Geranium richardsonii;

Area List: Golden.  

Geranium richardsonii Fisch. & Trautv. “Richardson's Geranium”

There is only one collection of Geranium richardsonii Fisch. & Trautv. “Richardson's Geranium” in Golden s.l. and that one on Lookout Mountain over 100 years ago.

It is typically found in the lower foothills in the Front Range of Jefferson County, including the Lost Creek area of the southern county. Colorado collections are in the mountain areas of the state, and thus exclude to plains and the extreme northwestern and southwestern area. This geranium is found across the American Cordillera, and the author has collected it in the mouth of Lundy Canyon, Mono County, California.

First named G. albiflorum, by Hooker (1830) that name was unavailable because it was previously used by Ledebour (1829) for a Geranium in the Altai. Fischer & Trautvetter (1838) applied a name in honor of Sir John Richardson to it in 1838.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Linum perenne;  Notes on Linum lewisii;

Area List: Golden.  

Linum lewisii Pursh “Prairie Blue Flax”

There are quite a few collections determined Linum lewisii Pursh “Prairie Blue Flax” from Golden s.l. Unfortunately, there is some confusion between this species and the non-native Linum perenne L., as well as possible hybridization between the two. L. lewisii is homostylous, i.e., the stamens and styles are approximately equal, whereas L. perenne is heterostylous, i.e., some plants have styles longer than stamens and others with styles shorter than stamens. The author confesses to being confused while in the field about determination of these two species. This is further confounded by the question of whether the two species hybridize. There is conflicting literature on this question, and development of cultivars; one in particular, “Appgar” was initially thought to be a cultivar of L. lewisii be later discovered to be a cultivar of L. perenne.

Nevertheless, Jefferson County collections of Linum that are determined L. lewisii are mostly along the base of the Front Range, with a few in the interior valleys. Colorado collections are in the mountain valleys and along the Front Range, with a very few collections on the plains.

L. lewisii was described by Pursh (1814) from a collection by Lewis & Clark, although Pursh noted that he described the plant from a live specimen, perhaps one growing in Lambert's garden.

 

Literature Cited:
- Small, John Kunkel, and Per Axel Rydberg, 1903.
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1857b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Chamaesyce fendleri;
• US I-20:   at Big Spring, Tx;

Area List: Golden.  

Chamaesyce fendleri (Torr. & A.Gray) Small “Fendler's Sandmat”

Known only from South Table Mountain, Chamaesyce fendleri (Torr. & A.Gray) Small “Fendler's Sandmat,” may be more common than the number of collections would indicate.

The type was collected by Dr. J. M. Bigelow at “Big Springs of the Colorado,” collecting for the Pacific Railroad Survey in 1853, and described by Torrey & Gray (1857). This location is now known as Big Spring, Howard County, Texas, between Midland and Abilene. Dr. A. Gray had seen this plant in Fendler's New Mexico collections (his no. 800) but he did not describe any Euphorbia from Fendler's collections. Small (1903) moved this and several otherChamaesyce from Euphorbia.

 

Literature Cited:
- Small, John Kunkel, and Per Axel Rydberg, 1903.
- Torrey John, 1859.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Chamaesyce glyptosperma;

Area List: Golden.  

Chamaesyce glyptosperma (Engelm.) Small “Ribseed Sand Mat”

More common than the preceding, there are three current collections of Chamaesyce glyptosperma (Engelm.) Small “Ribseed Sand Mat” in Golden s.l., one each from North and South Table Mountains, and one from Heritage Square.

Described by George Engelmann, M.D. as Euphorbia glyptosperma in Torrey (1859). Moved to Chamaesyce without comment by Small (1903).

Full Size Image
KHD63968 voucher of Coll. No. 1550.5, Chamaesyce glyptosperma.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Euphorbia brachycera;

Area List: Golden.  

Euphorbia brachycera Engelm. “Horned Spurge”

Similar to the preceding, there are just a few collections of “Horned Spurge” — Euphorbia brachycera — in Golden s.l., on North and South Table Mountains, and another in some dry rocky soil above Deadman Gulch.

The plant was described by George Engelmann in the Mexican Boundary Survey report by Torrey (1859). Engelmann cited a collection by Charles Wright in western New Mexico.

Jefferson County collections are mostly concentrated in the northern part of the county, just up into the foothills as far as Evergreen. Colorado collections are mostly from the Front Range westward, plus a few in the Pawnee National Grassland.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Euphorbia dentata;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2680, Euphorbia dentata.

Area List: Golden.  

Euphorbia dentata Michx. “Toothed Spurge”

Euphorbia dentata Michx. “Toothed Spurge” has been collected on North and South Table Mountains and at Heritage Square. It is also adventive in Golden gardens.

This spurge was first described by Michaux (1803) from plants found near Nashville, Tennessee. Placed by Weber & Wittmann (2012) in Poinsettia with the notation of alien, ruderal weed, whereas Ackerfield (2015) treats it as a possibly native Euphorbia.

Jefferson County collections are all right along the Front Range. Colorado collections are mainly from the Front Range east across the plains.

 

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Euphorbia marginata;

Area List: Golden.  

Euphorbia marginata Pursh “Snow on the Mountain”

There are a few collections of Euphorbia marginata Pursh “Snow on the Mountain” in the usual places of North and South Table Mountains, and Heritage Square (E. H. Brunquist). It has also been found on Eagle Ridge. The oldest collection in Golden was by N. L. Britton made 8 October 1882.

Colorado collections are mostly on the plains, with just a few collections up in the mountains.

This was a Lewis & Clark collection (28 July 1806), described by Pursh (1814, v. 2., p. 607).

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Euphorbia spathulata;

Area List: Golden.  

Euphorbia spathulata Lam. “Warty Spurge” or “Spoonleaf Spurge”

“Warty Spurge” or “Spoonleaf Spurge” — Euphorbia spathulata Lam. — has been found on North and South Table Mountains, and nowhere else in Golden. It's pretty small, so it may be overlooked by collectors.

Collection of this little spurge were made along the base of the Front Range and just slightly into the foothills of northern Jefferson County. Colorado collections are few in number, mostly along the northern Front Range and then scattered in south-central and southwest Colorado.

Warty Spurge's native distribution is North and South America. It was described by Lamarck from a collection in “Monte-Video,” by which I assume is meant Montevideo, Uruguay.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Tragia ramosa;

Area List: Golden.  

Tragia ramosa Torr. “Branched Noseburn”

Tragia ramosa Torr. “Branched Noseburn” gives the appearance of being a small unassuming plant, but its stinging hairs pack a punch. Collections and observations are scattered around Golden s.l., on North and South Table Mountains, and from Dakota Ridge in the north to Apex Park in the south.

The plant was first described by John Torrey (1828) from collections by Edwin James, MD., botanist on the Stephen H. Long expedition of 1820. Also noted by Torrey (1859) in his report on the botany of the Mexican Boundary Survey.

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Andres-Hernandez, Agustina Rosa, Teresa Terrazas, Gerardo Salazar, and Helga Ochoterena, 2014.
- Baldwin, Bruce G., Douglas H. Goldman, David J. Keil, Robert Patterson, and Thomas J. Rosatti, 2012.
- Barkley, Fred Alexander, 1937.
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.
- Watson, Sereno, 1871.
- Weber, William A., 1989.
- Yi, Tingshuang, Allison J. Miller, and Jun Wen, 2007.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:   Notes on Rhus trilobata;
• Field Notes:  20 Jun 2020;

Area List: Golden.  

Rhus trilobata Nutt. “Skunkbush”

Rhus trilobata Nutt. Ex Torr. & Gray “Skunkbush” is a common shrub from West Texas to southern California, and throughout the Rocky Mountain to the upper Missouri River. In the Rocky Mountain foothills near Golden, it is found everywhere, but rarely dominates the landscape. Common names are Skunkbush, Skunk Bush, Skunkbush Sumac, and Lemonade-bush. It has also been called Squawbush in the past, but that is now recognized as a perjorative name. “Lemonade”-names are probably better reserved for R. integrifolia.

First collected in the Rocky Mountains by Thomas Nuttall in 1834, it was described by Nuttall, then published by Torrey and Gray (1838) in their Flora of North America.

R. trilobata is sometimes reduced to the rank of variety or, once, subspecies under R. aromatica Aiton. See for example Watson (1871), Weber (1989), and Baldwin et al. (2012). Other authors retain R. trilobata at the rank of species, such as Barkley (1937) and our current Flora of Colorado (Ackerfield, 2015). Recent papers (Yi, et al., 2007 and Andres-Hernandez, et al., 2014) about the phylogeny of Rhus determined from molecular and structural data analyze both R. aromatica and R. trilobata as distinct species. While the studies show the two species to be closely related, the studies also show they are no more closely related than others, such as R. integrifolia and R. ovata.

Full Size Image
Rhus trilobata at the southern end of the Survey Field.
Full Size Image
Rhus trilobata at Ranson/Edwards.

 

Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1900a.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Toxicodendron rydbergii;

Area List: Golden.  

Toxicodendron rydbergii (Small ex Rydb.) Greene “Western Poison Ivy”

Found in many places in Golden s.l., there are no collections of “Western Poison Ivy” — Toxicodendron rydbergii (Small ex Rydb.) Greene. I have never collected it, but I suppose it's time to screw up my courage, glove up, and collect. The very few collections around Jefferson County show that it is widely distributed. Similarly, the plant is widely distributed in Colorado, except the northwest corner.

First described as Rhus Rydbergii Small and published by Per Axel Rydberg (1900) in his Catalogue of the Flora of Montana and Yellowstone National Park. Greene (1905) resurrected Miller's (1754) genus of Toxicodendron and moved many Rhus American plants there.

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John G., 1828.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Torrey, 1828, publication details;  Notes on Acer glabrum;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1738, 15 Aug 2017;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1738, Acer glabrum

Area List: Golden.  

Acer glabrum Torr. “Rocky Mountain Maple”

In Golden s.l. “Rocky Mountain Maple” — Acer glabrum Torr. has been found on the higher edges of North and South Table Mountains, and Windy Saddle Park, Apex Gulch, and the Welch Ditch. Jefferson County collections are scattered around the county, mostly in the foothills. Colorado state collections are scattered throughout the mountainous regions of the state, along streams, in gulches and ravines, and in dry forests.

Acer glabrum is a quntessential Jefferson County plant because the type was collected in Platte Canyon, Jefferson County by Edwin James MD in 1820. It was described by Torrey (1828) in his Account of a Collection of Plants by Edwin James.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Acer negundo L. “Box Elder Maple”;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1102, 11 May 2015

Area List: Golden.  

Acer negundo L. “Box Elder Maple”

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2451, Acer negundo
 

 

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ceanothus fendleri;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1700, Ceanothus fendleri

Area List: Golden.  

Ceanothus fendleri A. Gray “Fendler's Ceanothus”

Found in the higher places around the edges of Golden s.l., such as Apex Park, foothills of Lookout Mountain, and Mount Vernon Canyon. Jefferson County collections are up in the foothills and the southern part of the county. Found throughout Colorado, except for the eastern plains and the northwest corner of the state.

Described by Gray (1849) from collections by Agustus Fendler in the mountains east of Santa Fe.

 

Literature Cited:
- Rafinesque, C. S., 1808.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ceanothus herbaceus;
Full Size ImageCeanothus herbaceus at Lippincott Ranch.

Area List: Golden.  

Ceanothus herbaceus Raf. “Jersey Tea”

Collected on South Table Mountain, though nowhere else in Golden s.l.. Other jefferson County collections with coordinates are at Rocky Flats, with non-georeferenced collections along the base of the Front Range. Most Colorado state collections are along the Front Range.

Described by Rafinesque (1808) from the Falls of the Potomac River (Virginia or Maryland).

 

Literature Cited:
- Hitchcock, A. S., 1894.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Parthenocissus vitacea;

Area List: Golden.  

Parthenocissus vitacea (Knerr) Hitchcock “Woodbine, Thicket Creeper”

There are a couple of collections determined Parthenocissus vitacea (Knerr) Hitchcock “Woodbine, Thicket Creeper” that were made in Golden s.l., although this taxon is difficult to distinguish from P. quinquefolia. Similarly, there are a few collections in Jefferson County, especially from the intensely-collected Chatfield Farms. Most Colorado state collections are along the Front Range with a few out on the plains and in the southwest part of the state.

It was first described as a variety of Ampelopsis quinquefolia (Linnaeus) Michaux var. vitacea Knerr, Bot. Gaz. 18: [70]. 1893. Referred to a species under Parthenocissus by Hitchcock (1894). Sometimes treated as a synonym of P. inserta (A. Kern) Fritsch, c.f., the SEINet (2022) taxon tree.

 

Literature Cited:
- Michaux, Andre, 1803.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Vitis riparia;

Area List: Golden.  

Vitis riparia Michx. “Riverbank Grape”

Growing on the banks of moist gulches, such as Apex Gulch, and on South Table Mountain. Jefferson County collections are along the base of the Front Range. Colorado state collections are also along the base of the Front Range with a few out on the plains.

Described by Michaux (1803) as “ad ripas et in insulis fluviorum Ohio, Mississipi, &c. [at the banks and in the islands of the rivers of Ohio, Mississippi, &c.].”

 

Literature Cited:
- Fraser, John, 1813.
- Moulton, Gary E., 1999.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Sphaeralcea coccinea;
• Field Notes:  24 May 2018;

Area List: Golden.  

Sphaeralcea coccinea (Nutt.) Rydb. “Scarlet Globemallow”

Often called “Cowboy’s Delight,” found throughout Golden s.l. open spaces, sometimes as a single small delicate plant, sometimes as a larger plant with an extensive root system.

Collected first by Lewis & Clark in 1806 along the Marias River, Montana on their return from the Pacific Coast (Moulton, 1999). Collected again by Nuttall in 1811 along the Missouri River north to Fort Mandan. It was Nuttall's collection published first in Fraser's (1813) Catalogue as Malva coccinea.

Full Size Image
Sphaeralcea on the lowest slopes of North Table Mountain.

 

Literature Cited:
- Baillon, Henri, 1867-95.
- Ortega, Casmiro Gomez, 1797.
- Paula-Souza, Juliana, and Harvey E. Ballard, Jr., 2014.
- Wahlert, Gregory A., Thomas Marcussen, Juliana de Paula-Souza, Min Feng, and Harvey E. Ballard, Jr, 2014.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Hybanthus verticillatus;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2517, 18 Jun 2021;

Area List: Golden.  

Hybanthus verticillatus (Ortega) Baill. “Baby Slippers”

There are three collections of “Baby Slippers” — Hybanthus verticillatus (Ortega) Baill. — made in Golden s. l., two from South Table Mountain, and one from North Table Mountain. Pur plant has also been found in a private garden of about 1/2 acre in size. Moderately distributed along the base of the Front Range of Jefferson County, with collections from Roxborough State Park in the south to Rocky Flats in the north. More broadly in Colorado, the plant is found along the base of Front Range and out on the southeast plains.

The plant was first described as Viola verticillata (Ortega, 1797) from specimens grown at the Royal Gardens of Madrid using seeds sent from Mexico by D. Sesse. Baillon (1873) reorganized the Violaceae and placed our plant in Hybanthus, a genus that is highly polyphyletic. Phylogenetic work begun by Wahlert, et al. (2014) show that reorganization is necessary and that additional phylogenetic work is needed. Paula-Souza and Ballard (2014) began that work by re-establishing Pombalia and transferring our Hybanthus verticillata to it.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Viola canadensis;

Area List: Golden.  

Viola canadensis L. “Canadian White Violet”

Found in moist canyons and below cliffs around the edges of Golden s.l., on North and South Table Mountain, and Apex and Windy Saddle Parks. Other Jefferson County collections are along the base of the Front Range, and up into the foothills of the northern part of the county. Most Colorado state collections are in the mountains west of the plains, except for northwest part ot the state.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) who stated the habitat was Canada, and credited Pehr Kalm.

 

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Viola nuttallii;

Area List: Golden.  

Viola nuttallii Pursh “Nuttall's Violet” Viola nuttallii Pursh “Nuttall's Violet”

Commonly found in all of Golden s.l. open spaces, in nearly all habitats except the most dry and exposed. Most Jefferson County collections are in the northern part of the county along the base of the Front Range. Widespread in Colorado, common on open hills and in grasslands and meadows.

Described by Pursh (1814, v. 1, p. 174) who had seen it in Nuttall's herbarium. Nuttall collected it on the banks of the Missouri River.

 

Literature Cited:
- Don, George, 1831-1838.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Viola pedatifida;

Area List: Golden.  

Viola pedatifida G. Don “ Prairie Violet”

One collection on Lookout Mountain that may be within Golden s.l. One other collection in extreme northern Jefferson County. Otherwise it is found in gry grasslands and open ponderosa pine forest along the Front Range.

Described by George Don (1831) and known only for a North America origin.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Mentzelia albicaulis;

Area List: Golden.  

Mentzelia albicaulis (Douglas ex Hook.) Douglas ex Torr. & A. Gray “White-Stem Blazing Star”

With two collections, one each on North and South Table Mountains, Mentzelia albicaulis (Douglas ex Hook.) Douglas ex Torr. & A. Gray “White-Stem Blazing Star” Found in more or less random places in northern Jefferson County, along the hogbacks or in the lower foothills. Scattered around Colorado, often on the edges of the valleys. The author has also collected our plant at Mono Lake, Mono County, California. Distribution in Utah and Nevada show that it could be termed a Cordilleran species.

First described by Hooker (1834) from a manuscript by David Douglas as Bartonia albicaulis, then by Torrey & A. Gray (1840) again from a manuscript by David Douglas, perhaps the same, or a copy of the same, manuscript.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Mentzelia dispersa;

Area List: Golden.  

Mentzelia dispersa S. Watson “Bushy Blazing Star”

There are two collections of Mentzelia dispersa S. Watson “Bushy Blazing Star”, both on the west side of the mesa, and collected within a week of each other in 1992. The other Jefferson County collections were made by George E. Osterhout and Ira W. Clokey in Morrison, a little more than 100 years ago. There are relatively very few Colorado collections, and they are scattered over the mountainous area of the state, at elevations of 4500 ft. to 9000 ft., with none on the plains.

The first recognition of M. dispersa as an entity was Watson (1871) who proposed M. albicaulis var. integrifolia S. Watson, from collections in Nevada and Utah, and a Hall & Harbour collection from Colorado. Five years later, Watson (1876) published M. dispersa as a new species, citing collections from Washington Territory to Colorado and southward, including Yosemite Valley and Isla Guadalupe, Mexico.

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Gray, Asa, 1849.
- Hufford, Larry, John J. Schenk, and Joshua M. Brokaw, 2017.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848b.
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Mentzelia multiflora;

Area List: Golden.  

Mentzelia multiflora (Nutt.) A. Gray “Adonis Blazing Star”

One of five different Mentzelia collected in Golden s.l. Three collections in foothill sites, such as Clear Creek Canyon, Apex Gulch, and on Lookout Mountain.

Farther afield in Jefferson County it has been found in Genesee Park and Centennial Cone Open Space.

First published by Nuttall (1848b) from plants collected by William Gambel along the Rio Grande near Santa Fé, New Mexico. Nuttall (1848) placed this taxon in Bartonia, which is probably the Bartonia of Muhl. ex Willd. (1801) and not the Bartonia of Pursh (1812). Bartonia is still used as one of five section names of Mentzelia (Hufford, et al., 2017).

Gray (1849) in Plantć Fendleriana, a partial catalogue of plants collected by Augustus Fendler in 1847, placed this taxon in Mentzelia multiflora (Nutt.) A. Gray.

Most authors retain all the Mentzelia s.l. in a single name (Ackerfield, 2015, and Hufford, et al., 2017). An exception is Weber & Wittmann (2012) who segregate most of the Colorado “Mentzelia” into the genus Nuttallia Raf., some into Acrolasia and only one into Mentzelia

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Mentzelia nuda;

Area List: Golden.  

Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) Torr. & A. Gray “Bractless Blazing Star”

There are only two collections of Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) Torr. & A. Gray “Bractless Blazing Star” in Golden s.l., both by the author, and their determination might be highly suspicious except for the historical observation on North Table Mountain. There is another collection on South Table Mountain (Yeatts, #652) with vouchers that determined variously M. nuda and M. speciosa. The other collections in Jefferson County are around Chatfield Farms, an intensely collected location. Colorado collections are mostly out on the plains, with a few up in the mountains.

 

Literature Cited:
- Osterhout, George F., 1901a.
- Osterhout, George F., 1901b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Mentzelia speciosa`;

Area List: Golden.  

Mentzelia speciosa Osterh. “Plains Blazing Star”

For Mentzelia speciosa Osterh. “Plains Blazing Star,” we have an observation on North Table Mountain and a collection on South Table Mountain, from which various vouchers have been determined M. nuda or M. speciosa. Other Jefferson County collections are from Morrison, and then up in the foothills near Pine. Colorado state collections are along the Front Range and along the edges of the southern mountain valleys.

The plant was first named M. aurea by George Osterhout (1901a) from a collection he made in Estes Park. However this name was previously used by Nuttall and was thus illegitimate, so a month later, Osterhout (1901b) proposed M. speciosa.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Coryphantha missouriensis;
• Field Notes:   18 May 2018;

Locations: North Washington Open Space.
Full Size ImageCoryphantha missouriensis

Area List: Golden.  

Coryphantha missouriensis (Sweet) Britton & Rose “Missouri Foxtail Cactus”

A very low-growing cactus that is also easily overlooked or stepped upon. Unique in that the red fruits develop in the spring a year after flowering.

The “Missouri” name refers to the Missouri River that was a thoroughfare of transportation during the early 19th century, long before the State of Missouri was admitted to the Union in 1821.

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Britton, Nathaniel Lord, and J. N. Rose, 1919-1923.
- Fraser, John, 1813.
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Coryphantha vivipara;

Area List: Golden.  

Coryphantha vivipara (Nutt.) Britton & Rose “Beehive Cactus”

Seen in multiple places around Golden s.l., usually on ridges or rocky places, but generally not in low or grassy places. In Jefferson County, also collected at Chatfield. Probably more common than the number of collections would indicate. However, many collectors including the author are reluctant to collect cactus because of their rariety.

First collected by Nuttall near the Mandan villages and published in Fraser's (1813) Catalogue. Subject to some confusion about recognition of species because it's form varies widely over a broad distribution, from southern Canada to northern Mexico, it was placed in Coryphantha vivipara by Britton & Rose (1913). Since then, it has bounced back and forth between Coryphantha and Escobaria several times, but for now Colorado authors (Ackerfield, 2015; Weber & Wittmann, 2012) accept Coryphantha vivipara.

Full Size Image
Small Corypantha vivipara in bloom beside Utah Highway 21
Full Size Image
Obs. No. 1553, Coryphantha vivipara

 

Literature Cited:
- Engelmann, George, 1848.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Echinocereus viridiflorus;
• Field Notes:   Obs. No. 1471, 29 May 2016;
• US Interstate 25:   at Wolf Ck;

Locations: Wolf Creek.

Area List: Golden.  

Echinocereus viridiflorus Engelm. “Nylon Hedgehog Cactus”

A very small beehive-shaped cactus, sometimes growing in very dense clusters. Seen on North and South Table Mountains, and North Washington Open Space.

Found in the intensely-collected places of Jefferson County, such as Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms. Common on the plains and mountain valleys of eastern Colorado.

Recognized as a new genus and species and published by George Engelmann (1848) from collections made at Santa Fe and on the Santa Fe Trail at Wolf Creek by Agustus Fendler in 1847.

Full Size Image
Obs. No. 1471, Echinocereus viridiflorus

 

Literature Cited:
- Engelmann, George, 1850.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Opuntia macrorhiza;

Locations: Guadalupe River.

Area List: Golden.  

Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. “Western Pricklypear”

There are two Opuntias or Pricklypears that are common in Golden s.l. Both are scattered in all the open spaces, and sometimes are found growing together.

“Western Pricklypear” — Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. — has been found on North and South Table Mountains, Dakota Ridge, North Washington Open Space, and the Survey Field. The pricklypear has been found in all the intensely-collected localities in Jefferson County. It is probably more common that the number of collections (n=17) would indicate; collecting these cacti is a difficult and prickly activity. Most of the collections are along the Front Range and foothills with a few collections in the Colorado mountain valleys.

This cactus was first described by George Engelmann (1850) from a collection by F. Lindheimer on the Guadalupe River of west Texas. Some manuals apply a common name of “Twistspine Pricklypear.” I do not perceive the spines to be twisted, at least not in the sense that the awns of some grasses are twisted, and think that Ackerfield's (2015) use of “Western Pricklypear” would be preferred. Observations of O. compressa are assumed to be O. macrorhiza.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2371, Opuntia macrorhiza
Full Size Image
Obs. No. 1540, Opuntia macrorhiza
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1948, Opuntia macrorhiza

 

Literature Cited:
- Haworth, Adrian Hardy, 1819.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Opuntia polyacantha;

Area List: Golden.  

Opuntia polyacantha Haw. “Plains Pricklypear”

Like the preceeding, the “Plains Pricklypear” — Opuntia polyacantha Haw. — is found in most localities in Golden s.l. with collections specifically from North and South Table Mountain, Dakota Ridge, North Washington Open Space, and Deadman Gulch (Kinney Run). The distribution of Plains Pricklypear in Jefferson County is roughly the same as Western Pricklypear. In Colorado there are many collections from the plains, foothills, and mountain valleys.

First recognized as a species by Thomas Nuttall (1818) in his Genera of North American Plants as Cactus ferox, although that name was not available because it had been previously used by Willdenow (1814). Haworth (1819) provided a valid name, citing both Nuttall's name and a specimen grown in the Physic Garden of Chelsea along the Thames River in London.

Full Size Image
Obs. No. 1427, Opuntia polyacantha
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2445, Opuntia polyacantha

 

Literature Cited:
- Engelmann, George, 1863.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Pediocactus simpsonii;
• Cty Rd 93:  Matthews / Winters Park;
• Field Notes:   Obs. No. 1086, 25 Apr 2015;

Locations: Mount Vernon.

Area List: Golden.  

Pediocactus simpsonii (Engelm.) Britton & Rose “Mountain Ball Cactus”

Known from North and South Table Mountains, and Dakota Ridge. An iconic, easily recognized cactus found in open, dry places throughout much of Colorado.

The cactus was named for Captain J. H. Simpson who led an expedition to Utah Territory in 1859. Collections were made in Butte Valley and Kobeh Valley of today's Nevada by Henry Engelmann, and named by his brother, George Engelmann (1863). A variety was collected at Mount Vernon, Jefferson County, by Parry, Hall and Harbour, though the variety is not currently accepted because the cactus is highly variable throughout its range.

Full Size Image
Pediocactus simpsonii (Nutt.) Haw.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Chamerion angustifolium;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2640, Chamerion angustifolium.

Area List: Golden.  

Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub. “Fireweed”

There is perhaps one collection of Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub. “Fireweed” from Golden s.l., i.e., on Lookout Mountain. Otherwise, the Jefferson County localities are in the interior of the county from Squaw Mountain to Buffalo Peak, although the author collected our plant at Lippincott Ranch (highest Great Plains) in 2021. Most Colorado collections are in the Rocky Mountains on both the east and west slope.

This is a circumpolar species, first published by Linnaeus (1753) as Epilobium angustifolium, placed in Chamerion by Holub (1972), but some of the more recent literature are treating the plant as an Epilobium.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Circaea alpina;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2628.1, Circaea alpina

Area List: Golden.  

Circaea alpina L. “Small Enchanter's Nightshade”

There are two collections of Circaea alpina L. “Small Enchanter's Nightshade” that may be in Golden s.l., one high in Apex Gulch, and the other only identified as Golden. Most of the collections in Jefferson County are well up into the foothills, though the author has collected it at Lippincott Ranch. Colorado state collections are also in the foothills, mostly on the east slope, with just a few collections on the west slope.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Epilobium;

Area List: Golden.  

Epilobium L. “Willow-Herb”

Epilobium (from the Greek) Willow-Herb It is the largest in the family and contains the great majority of species of Onagraceae found in the Old World. Most of the species are somewhat mesophytic in habitat preference. In this genus, the mode of vegetative propagation is variable, some species having above-ground stolons. Those of Iraq have below ground level, either turions (fleshy overwintering buds), soboles (pale elongate shoots) or leafy rosettes which are ± erect. The genus name derives from the Greek words "epi" meaning "upon" and "lobos" meaning "lobe", with reference to position of the petals above the ovary.

 

Literature Cited:
- Presl, Carl B., 1830-1835.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Epilobium brachycarpum;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1286.1, Epilobium brachycarpum

Area List: Golden.  

Epilobium brachycarpum C. Presl “Autumn Willow Herb”

Two collections of Epilobium brachycarpum C. Presl “Autumn Willow Herb” in Golden s.l., both in the vicinity of Heritage Square and Apex Gulch. Jefferson County collections are along the Front Range, including collections by the author at Ranson/Edwards and Lippincott Ranch. Colorado collections are scattered around the state from the Front Range to the west.

Reliquiae Haenkeanae, published by Presl (1830-1835) was based on botanical specimens collected in the Americas by Thaddaeus Haenke.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Epilobium ciliatum;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2008, Epilobium ciliatum

Area List: Golden.  

Epilobium ciliatum Raf. “Fringed Willowherb”

Common in damp areas throughout Golden s.l., sometimes with E. hirsutum, unfortunately. Common in the northern part of Jefferson County, though there are no collections from the southern part. Found throughout the state of Colorado, but sparingly out on the plains.

The name was published by Rafinesque (1808) in a publication — Medical Repository — that I have not been able to find online.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Oenothera albicaulis;  

Oenothera L

There are ten species of Oenothera L. known from Golden s.l., nine of which are native. These nine species are represented by 31 collections. Six of the nine native species are represented by one or two collections. This seems a little suspicious to me, that perhaps some of those collections are mis-identified.

The four caespitose or acaulis Oenothera are:

  • O. albicaulis
  • O. brachycarpa
  • O. caespitosa
  • O. howardii

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Oenothera;  Notes on Oenothera albicaulis;

Area List: Golden.  

Oenothera albicaulis Pursh “Whitest Evening Primrose”

Three collections, one on Lookout Mountain, and two on South Table Mountain. All the collections are below the foothills of Jefferson County. At the state level, collections are widely scattered around the state.

The name was first proposed by Nuttall (1813) for a plant he collected on the Missouri, though we now treat this name as invalid because there was no description, or means to distinguish this Oenothera from any other. Pursh (1813) published the name again citing Nuttall's name, and also acknowledgeing a collection by Bradbury.

 

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1852-1853.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Oenothera brachycarpa;

Area List: Golden.  

Oenothera brachycarpa A. Gray “Short-Fruit Evening Primrose”

Oenothera brachycarpa A. Gray “Short-Fruit Evening Primrose” is known from three collections; two historic collections that have very similar handwritten labels, from and a more recent collection on South Table Mountain. Other Jefferson County collections are just along the base of the foothills. Similarly, Colorado state collections are along the base of the foothills in near Boulder and Denver.

Not accepted in Colorado by Weber & Wittmann (2012) or Ackerfield (2015), accepted by Harrington (1964, 2nd ed.).

First described by Gray (1852) from collections by Wright in west Texas.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Oenothera cespitosa;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1407, Oenothera cespitosa var. macroglottis

Area List: Golden.  

Oenothera cespitosa Nutt. “Tufted Evening Primrose”

“Tufted Evening Primrose.” — Oenothera cespitosa Nutt. — and two of its varieties have been collected on North and South Table Mountains, and on Lookout Mountain. There are only a few (25) collections of O. cespitosa in Jefferson County, and none at the intensely-collected sites of Rocky Flats or Chatfield.

The caespitose Oenothera at Rocky Flats have been O. howardii and O. flava. At Chatfield O. albicaulis, O. brachycarpa, and O. howardii have been collected. The species seems to be found primarily in the American Cordillera and western Great Plains.

First collected and described by Nuttall in Fraser's (1813) Catalogue who does not identify the location of his collections, though it was likely on the upper Missouri River. This is one of Nuttall's names that have stood the test of time.

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Oenothera coronopifolia;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2566, Oenothera coronopifolia

Area List: Golden.  

Oenothera coronopifolia Torr. & A. Gray “Crownleaf Evening Primrose”

There is one collection of Oenothera coronopifolia Torr. & A. Gray “Crownleaf Evening Primrose” in Golden s.l., made more than 100 years ago at the base of Lookout Mountain. This would be in the present-day Survey Field. The handwriting on this collection is very similar to the two historic collections of O. brachycarpa, above. Other collections in Jefferson County are in the foothills, as far south as the Buffalo Creek Recreation Area. Colorado state collections are from around the state except for the higher ranges in the north-central section of the state. The author has collected our plant at Salt Creek, Park County, Colorado.

Collected by Edwin James, MD, probably near the forks of the Platte River, and described by Torrey & Gray (1840) in their Flora of North America.

 

Literature Cited:
- Goodman, George J., and Cheryl A. Lawson, 1995.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Oenothera curtiflora;

Area List: Golden.  

Oenothera curtiflora W.L. Wagner & Hoch “Velvet Butterfly-Weed”

Collected on North and South Table Mountains, and Heritage Square, Oenothera curtiflora W.L. Wagner & Hoch “Velvet Butterfly-Weed” is found in grasslands, fields, and disturbed areas. In Jefferson County, it is found at the base of the foothills and out on the plains. Colorado collections are mostly on the plains and in the valleys of the west slope. It is native to the central part of North America.

There is an error in Ackerfield (2015) Flora of Colorado in that our plant is named O. curtifolia whereas the correct name is O. curtiflora.

Notwithstanding some controversy, the first name applied to this plant was Gaura mollis James. Goodman & Lawson (1995) explain that James published his name a few months before Gaura mollis HBK. I assume that Oenothera mollis was not available because of Oenothera mollissima L.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Oenothera howardii;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1430, Oenothera howardii

Area List: Golden.  

Oenothera howardii (A. Nels.) W. L. Wagner “Howard's Evening Primrose”

Seven collections in Golden s.l., mostly between the Survey Field and South Table Mountain. Jefferson County collections are out on the plains and up against the foothills as far south as Chatfield. Colorado state collections are along the Front Range, and then out on the southeast plains.

The name was first used by Jones (1893) though in an invalid way. This was fixed by Nelson (1902) as Lavauxia howardii. Placed back in Oenothera by Wagner (1983).

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1813.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.
- Sweet, Robert, 1830, 2nd ed..

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Oenothera nuttallii;

Area List: Golden.  

Oenothera nuttallii Sweet “Nuttall's Evening Primrose”

There is a single collection of Oenothera nuttallii Sweet “Nuttall's Evening Primrose” that may be in Golden s.l. It was made in 1960 “Just east of Golden along the Coors Brewery Road.” There is one other collection in Jefferson County, that of well-known California botanist Philip A. Munz, made 8 miles west of Morrison. Colorado collections are concentrated along the Front Range, North Park, with a few out on the plains.

First intended to be O. albicaulis Nuttall (1813), though this is considered nom. inval.. Then, Pursh (1814) published O. albicaulis for a different plant, and listed Nuttall's name in error as a synonym. Sweet (1830) corrected this and published the plant as O. nuttallii.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Oenothera suffrutescens;

Area List: Golden.  

Oenothera suffrutescens (Ser.) W. L. Wagner & Hoch “Linda Tarde”

Oenothera suffrutescens (Ser.) W. L. Wagner & Hoch “Linda Tarde” is one of those plants that does not form large colonies, but is found most everywhere; from Dakota Ridge in the north to Tin Cup Ridge in the south,

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Oenothera villosa;

Area List: Golden.  

Oenothera villosa Thunb. “Hairy Evening Primrose”

Collected in Apex Gulch and on South Table Mountain, Oenothera villosa Thunb. “Hairy Evening Primrose” is not common in Golden s.l. The author has not seen it in Golden, though I have collected it at three widely separated places at Ranson/Edwards. Jefferson County collections are widely distributed, on the plains, at the base of the Front Range, and the interior of the county, such as the Buffalo Creek Recreation Area. It is found in nearly every county of Colorado.

The plant was described by Thunberg (1794) from Cape of Good Hope, Africa, where it was introduced, though its native range is Subarctic America to U.S.A.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Aralia nudicaulis;

Area List: Golden.  

Aralia nudicaulis L. “Wild Sarsaparilla”

Two collections in Golden s.l., one in Vidler's Gulch, the other in a generic Lookout Mountain location. Found in lower elevations of the Front Range of Jefferson County, and the most of Colorado, and not out on the plains.

 

Literature Cited:
- Coulter, John M., and Joseph N. Rose, 1888.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Aletes acaulis;
Full Size ImageApiaceae Aletes acaulis

Area List: Golden.  

Aletes acaulis (Torr.) J.M. Coult. & Rose “Stemless Indian Parsley”

Found along the cliffs of North and South Table Mountains, and steep rocky slopes above Welch Ditch. In Jefferson County, from Bear Creek North, as are most collections in Colorado, except a scattered few on cliffs south and west of Denver.

Finding a appropriate name for this plant was quite a challenge and, at one time, it was known simultaneously by names in three different genera, all published by A. Gray. For this reason Coulter & Rose (1888) published a new genus just for this species.

Unfortunately, recent phylogenetic work (Sun & Downie, 2010) suggests that Aletes and associated taxa of Lomatium, Cymopteris, and Musineon are in quite a muddle, and we may soon see a reorganization.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1321, Aletes acaulis

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Harbouria trachypleura;

Area List: Golden.  

Harbouria trachypleura (A. Gray) J.M. Coult. & Rose “Whiskbroom Parsley”

Common in Golden s.l. having been collected on North Table Mountain, through Kinney Run, to Apex Park and Tin Cup Ridge. Curiously, it has not been collected in South Table Mountain. There are currently collections from most areas of Jefferson County. The plant is found along the Front Range from Colorado Springs north with a few scattered collections to the south.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ligusticum porteri;

Area List: Golden.  

Ligusticum porteri J.M. Coult. & Rose “Porter's Licorice-Root”

There are records of two collections of “Porter's Licorice-Root” — Ligusticum porteri J.M. Coult. & Rose — in the Golden area. Presumably these were from Lookout Mountain, although all location information about this species is redacted. While reasonably widely distributed, the species is threatened by wild-collecting. It is the roots, known as “osha,” that are used for medicinal purposes and so commercial harvests are very likely to be harmful to local populations. Only Ligusticum porteri is deemed “true” osha. The root is considered an immune booster and aid for coughs, pneumonia, colds, bronchitis, and the flu. It’s also used to relieve indigestion, lung diseases, body aches, and sore throats.

Not rated for rariety by CNHP. Rated as S2 – Imperiled, by NatureServe. Global status G3 – Vulnerable.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Lomatium orientale;

Area List: Golden.  

Lomatium orientale J.M. Coult. & Rose “Salt-and-Pepper”

The common name I started with for Lomatium orientale J.M. Coult. & Rose was “Northern Idaho Biscuitroot.” Turns out, though, that the plant doesn’t grow in Northern Idaho, and by its scientific name might be called “Western Biscuitroot” However, out current manual of Colorado flora (Ackerfield, 2015) gives a common name of “Salt-and-Pepper,” an allusion to the dappled appearance of the inflorescence.

This is a very common early perennial in Golden s.l. that has been collected pretty much everywhere from Dakota Ridge in the north to Tin Cup Ridge in the south.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Musineon divaricatum;

Area List: Golden.  

Musineon divaricatum (Pursh) Raf. “Leafy Wildparsley”

Much less common than some of the preceeding Carrot family representatives, “Leafy Wildparsley” — Musineon divaricatum (Pursh) Raf. — has been collected at only two sites in Golden s.l.: Deadman Gulch and South Table Mountain. In Jefferson County it is found only at the base of the Front Range and out on what used to be the plains. The state distribution is similar, though the distribution on the plains is spotty.

First recognized by Pursh (1814) from a collection by Bradbury “… in upper Louisiana.”

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Cornus sericea;

Area List: Golden.  

Cornus sericea L. “Creek Dogwood”

There are two collections of Creek Dogwood in Golden s.l., one on Lookout Mountain, and the other on the north side of South Table Mountain. It probably is also on the north side of North Table Mountain, and in the mouth of Clear Creek Canyon.

Described by Linnaeus (1771) as being native to North America, it has an amazing 71 synonyms (Kew, 2022). C. sericea itself is sometimes treated as a synonym of C. alba. Some cultivars are planted for their bright red stems in winter and have a common name of “red-osier dogwood.”

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Arctostaphylos uva-ursi;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1355, 21 May 2016;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1355, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Area List: Golden.  

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Sprengel “Bearberry”

A circum-polar plant, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Sprengel “Bearberry” has been collected on Lookout Mountain and Tin Cup Ridge. The main part of Golden s.l. is a little lower than its usual range. The author grows it in town, though in high shade beneath a crabapple tree.

Bearberry is more common in the interior of Jefferson County. For example the author has collected it on the slopes of Little Scraggy Peak (Buffalo Creek Recreation Area) and at Goose Creek. In Colorado, it is a common forest groundcover and is found throughout the mountain ranges of Colorado.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Orthilia secunda;

Area List: Golden.  

Orthilia secunda (L.) House “Sidebells Wintergreen”

A common plant of moist coniferous forests, there is one or maybe two collections of Orthilia secunda (L.) House “Sidebells Wintergreen” in the portion of Golden s.l. on Lookout Mountain.

The plant was first described as Pyrola secundus by Linnaeus (1753) then separated into Orthilia by House (1921) as a nomenclatural change without explanation.

The Colorado distribution is mountainous areas of Colorado.

 

Literature Cited:
- Michaux, Andre, 1803.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Pyrola asarifolia;

Area List: Golden.  

Pyrola asarifolia Michx. “Liverleaf Wintergreen”

Common along streambanks and in moist, shaded forests, there are three collections of Pyrola asarifolia Michx. “Liverleaf Wintergreen” on Lookout Mountain and may therefore be counted in the flora of Golden s.l. The most recent of the three collections was made 100 years ago.

The plant was firest described by Michaux (1803).

 

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Androsace occidentalis;

Area List: Golden.  

Androsace occidentalis Pursh “Western Rockjasmine”

Found on North and South Table Mountains, and the Survey Field. Jefferson County collections are along the base of the Front Range, with one collection in the foothills. From a state perspective, mostly in the interior valleys and along the Front Range.

Described by Pursh (1814) from a collection by Nuttall on the banks of the Missouri River.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Androsace septentrionalis;

Area List: Golden.  

Androsace septentrionalis L. “Pygmyflower Rockjasmine”

One collection on Lookout Mountain that may be in Golden s.l.. Found mostly in the foothills of Jefferson County, including collections by the author in Buffalo Creek Recreation Area. There are numerous Colorado collections, nearly all in the mountains from the Front Range to the west.

According to Linnaeus (1753), “She lives in the sunny pebbly Alps of Lapland, Russia.” Plants of the World (Kew, 2022) states that its native range is temperate northern hemisphere.

 

Literature Cited:
- Merrill, E. D., 1948.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Dodecatheon pulchellum;

Area List: Golden.  

Dodecatheon pulchellum (Raf.) Merr. “Beautiful Shootingstar”

Several collections around Golden s.l. usually in steep wet gulches or marshy areas. Jefferson County collections are in the foothills of the county or in gulches or along streams at the base of the Front Range. In addition to Apex Park, the author has collected out plant in the mouth of Clear Creek Canyon, and at Morrison Creek in the Buffalo Creek Recreation Area. Similarly, state of Colorado collections are found in meadows, moist places, and spruce or aspen forests.

The naming of our plant went through several gyrations, with characters such as Drummond, Michaux, Hooker, Rafinesque, Greene, and Rydberg involved, ending with Merrill's (1948) Nomenclatural Notes on Rafinesque's Published Papers, 1804-1840.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Lysimachia ciliata;

Area List: Golden.  

Lysimachia ciliata L. “Fringed Loosestrife”

One collection definitely in Golden s.l., i.e., Apex Gulch, and another on Lookout Mountain that may be in Golden. Collected by the author twice at Ranson/Edwards, it is common at Rocky Flats, and just barely up into the foothills of Jefferson County. Found mostly along the Front Range of Colorado with a kind of odd smattering of locations in the interior of the state.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) from locations in Virginia and Canada.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Eustoma grandiflorum;

Area List: Golden.  

Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinners “Showy Prairie Gentian”

Known from Golden s.l. from a single collection made in 1905 on Lookout Mountain above Golden, there are quite a number of collections from Wheat Ridge and Arvada. Most Colorado collections are found from the base of the Front Range out onto the plains.

Some sources, e.g., POWO (Kew, 2022) treat E. grandiflorum as a synonym of E. russellianum (Hook.) G. Don, the question appearing to one of priority of Hooker's name over Rafinesque's name.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Frasera speciosa;

Area List: Golden.  

Frasera speciosa Griseb. “Elkweed”

 

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Apocynum cannabinum;

Area List: Golden.  

Apocynum cannabinum L. “Indian Hemp”

One collection from South Table Mountain, and a report from North Table Mountain. The name is a Linnaean (1753) name, who cited habitat in Canada and Virginia.

 

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward L., 1893.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Apocynum ×floribundum;

Area List: Golden.  

Apocynum ×floribundum Greene “Dogbane”

Every “Dogbane” that I have collected in Golden s.l. and along the Front Range has turned out to be the hybrid — Apocynum ×floribundum Greene. I'm not sure whether that says more about the plants or my identification skills. Regardless, my collection in Golden s.l. was on North Table Mountain, whereas the next, A. cannabinum has been reported for North Table Mountain, and collected on South Table Mountain.

The plant was first recognized by Greene (1893) from specimens in the southern Sierra Nevada of Kern County, California. It has been described as a variety of A. cannabinum by Jepson (1939). and as a variety of A. medium by Munz (1965). The Jepson Manual of California (Baldwin, 2012) treats it as a synonym of A. androsaemifolium.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Asclepias incarnata;

Area List: Golden.  

Asclepias incarnata L. “Swamp Milkweed”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Asclepias pumila;
Full Size ImageAsclepias pumila growing in my parkway.
Full Size ImageAsclepias pumila growing in my parkway.

Area List: Golden.  

Asclepias pumila (A. Gray) Vail “Plains Milkweed”

Collected on North and South Table Mountains, the “Plains Milkweed” — Asclepias pumila (A. Gray) Vail — is very small and unassuming, leading me to suggest it is often overlooked. For example, I know of some rescue collecting done at the corner of US Highway 6 and Heritage Road that resulted in a large clump being moved to a private garden.

First described as a depauperate or dwarf form of A. verticillata L. by Gray (1876). This makes a lot of sense because the leaves are whorled, a fairly uncommon character of milkweeds. Britton & Brown (1898) elevated variety pumila to the rank of species without comment.

 

Literature Cited:
- Goodman, George J., and Cheryl A. Lawson, 1995.
- Torrey, John G., 1828.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Asclepias speciosa;

Area List: Golden.  

Asclepias speciosa Torr. “Showy Milkweed”

Tall, large-flowered, and with a distinctive seed pod covered with tubercules, the “Showy Milkweed” — Asclepias speciosa Torr. — is very widely distributed in Golden s.l., Jefferson County and Colorado.

First described by John Torrey (1828) from a collection by Edwin James, MD. The type was collected on June 14, 1820, as the Stephen H. Long expedition traveled south from the Loup River to the Platte through Merrick County, Nebraska (Goodman and Lawson, 1995, p. 130-131).

Full Size Image
Seed pod of Asclepias speciosa
Full Size Image
Seed of Asclepias speciosa

 

Literature Cited:
- Rafinesque, C. S., 1808.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Asclepias viridiflora;
Full Size ImageObs. No. 1933, Asclepias viridiflora

Area List: Golden.  

Asclepias viridiflora Raf. “Green Comet Milkweed”

Less common than the preceding, the “Green Comet Milkweed” — Asclepias viridiflora Raf. — has been found on North and South Table Mountains, and in Apex Park.

There are two similarly named milkweeds, e.g., A. viridis and A. viridula, but those two species are not known from Colorado.

A. viridiflora has been seen in flower in Apex about the 10th of June, and in fruit on North Table Mountain near the end of July.

Full Size Image
Fruit of Asclepias definitely, maybe A. viridiflora

 

Literature Cited:
- Brown, Robert, 1810.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.
- Ro¨mer, Johann Jacob, Joseph August Schultes, Julius Hermann Schultes, Jurt Polycarp Joachim Sprengel, and J. G. Cotta, 1820.
- SEINet, 2019+.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Convolvulus arvensis;  Notes on Evolvulus nuttallianus Roem. & Schult.;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2319, 6 Jun 2020;

Area List: Golden.  

Evolvulus nuttallianus Roem. & Schult. “Shaggy Dwarf Morning Glory”

In the Morning-Glory family (Convolvulaceae) most everyone recognizes Field Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) a ubiquitous noxious weed, and a plague on every well-tended garden.

It may come as a surprise, then, that there is also a small native perennial morning-glory that is common in sandy places on the plains and found occasionally in the lower foothills. It is the “Shaggy Dwarf Morning Glory” (Evolvulus nuttallianus). Found first by Thomas Nuttall in 1811 on the banks of the Missouri River, it was first named E. argenteus by Frederick Pursh (1814) in his North American Flora. However, the name was previously published by Robert Brown (1810) in his natural history of Australia and Tasmania, then called New Holland and Van Dieman's Land, respectively. Therefore, Pursh's name was illegitimate. Roemer & Schultes (1820) rectified this when they published volume 6 of the 16th edition of Linneaus' Systema Vegetabilium, by applying a new name of E. nuttalianus after, of course, the name of the original collector, Thomas Nuttall.

The first collection in Colorado was made by George Vasey of Powells Colorado Exploring Expedition of 1868. There are vouchers at PRBU, NY, and SJNM (SEINet, 2020). It is not known where in Colorado the collection was made.

In Jefferson County, there are seven collections, one of which is mine from the North Washington Open Space. Loraine Yeatts collected the plant on South Table Mountain in 1983. Four collections were made at Rocky Flats, probably the best studied piece of ground in Jefferson County, and there is one collection from Chatfield.

Full Size Image
Flower of Coll. No. 2319, Evolvulus nuttallianus
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2319, Evolvulus nuttallianus

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Aliciella pinnatifida;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1741, Aliciella pinnatifida

Area List: Golden.  

Aliciella pinnatifida (Nutt. ex A.Gray) J.M.Porter “Sticky Gilia”

Collections from North Table Mountain and Heritage Square. The lack of collections, especially from South Table Mountain, is surprising. Tends to be found more in the foothills of Jefferson County than out on the Great Plains, although it is found on the plains in counties north and south of Jefferson County.

First described as Gilia pinnatifida by Asa Gray (1870) in his Revision of the Polemoniaceae (Phlox family) from a Nuttall collection in Gray's herbarium. There must have been some description written by Nuttall for Gray to give credit to Nuttall. The oldest known extant collection was by Frémont 1842 from the Torrey Herbarium (NY3261962). The oldest collection in the Gray Herbarium is by Fendler 16 June 1847 (GH1154924). This collection was designated as a lectotype by Porter 15 January 2002. Moved to a recircumscribed Aliciella by Porter (1998) because molecular data showed the group was more closely allied to Loeselia and Ipomopsis than to Gilia. Aliciella, by the way, is named for Colorado's Alice Eastwood.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Collomia linearis;

Area List: Golden.  

Collomia linearis Nutt. “Tiny Trumpet”

Two collections in Golden s.l., both from approximately the same area: Apex Gulch, west southwest of the Magic Mountain archeological dig. Also found at Rocky Flats, Chatfield, and various places in the Jefferson County foothills. Throughout the Colorado Rocky Mountains, but only out on the Great Plains on the Palmer Divide.

Nuttall (1818) proposed both the genus and specific name, and they have withstood the test of time.

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Brand, A., 1907.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Gilia ophthalmoides;

Area List: Golden.  

Gilia ophthalmoides Brand “Pinyon Gilia”

There are four collections of various Gilias that were collected in Golden s.l. 60 to 100 years ago. The various vouchers are annotated a mix of G. inconspicua, G. opthalmoides, and G. sinuata. Ackerfield (2015) treats G. inconspicua as a synonym of G. opthalmoides.

Three collections are possibly G. ophthalmoides, one each by Marcus E. Jones (1878), Ira W. Clokey (1921), and Ellsworth Bethel (1921). All three simply give the location as “Golden.” Other Jefferson County collections were made at Rocky Flats and around Morrison. So the locations could all be characterized as along the base of the Front Range. At the state level, there are other collections along the Front Range, but our plant is more common on the west slope.

G. ophthalmoides was described by A. Brand in Engler's (1907) Das Pflanzenreich from a collection by Carl A. Purpus made in washes at Gold Mountain, 1898. An image of this voucher is available online.

 

Literature Cited:
- Bentham, George, 1845.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Gilia sinuata;

Area List: Golden.  

Gilia sinuata Benth. “Rosy Gilia”

There is only one collection made in Golden s.l. that is currently determined Gilia sinuata Benth. “Rosy Gilia.” Not surprisingly, it was made by Ernest H. Brunquist at the Peabody Museum archeological dig. Jefferson County collections are along the base of the Front Range, at Morrison and Kassler, in addition to Golden. Colorado state collections are on the west slope, in addtion to those in Jefferson County. Its native range is British Columbia (type, extinct) to New Mexico and Mexico (Baja California Norte, Sonora).

Published by Bentham in DeCandolle (1845) from a manuscript by Douglas. The type locality is the Okanagon Valley, where our plant is thought to now be extinct.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ipomopsis aggregata aggregata;

Area List: Golden.  

Ipomopsis aggregata (Pursh) V. E. Grant ssp. aggregata

 

 

Literature Cited:
- Grant, Verne, 1956.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.
- RydbergPA1901a, 1901a.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ipomopsis aggregata candida;

Locations: Veta Pass.

Area List: Golden.  

Ipomopsis aggregata (Pursh) V. E. Grant ssp. candida (Rydb.) V. E. Grant & A. D. Grant “Scarlet Gilia”

All of the collections of Ipomopsis aggregata made in Golden s.l. — so far! — have been ssp. candida (Rydb.) V. E. Grant & A. D. Grant “Scarlet Gilia.” There are five collections and one observation from North and South Table Mountain, and Lookout Mountain, plus one collection from the generic location of Golden. I also include a collection from the unfortunate location of Jackson Gulch, now occupied by the Martin-Marietta quarry at the south end of Golden. Collections along the base of the Front Range of Jefferson County are in the minority, with most collections of this subspecies in the lower foothills. Collections of subspecies collina are distributed a little farther south, such as the Buffalo Creek Recreation Area.

The species was first described by Pursh (1814) from a Lewis & Clark collection in Idaho. Rydberg (1901) described the subspecies at the rank of species from a collection made near La Veta, Animas County, Colorado. Grant (1956) reduced our plant to rank of subspecies under Ipomopsis aggregata without comment.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ipomopsis spicata;

Locations: Scotts Bluff.

Area List: Golden.  

Ipomopsis spicata (Nutt.) V.E. Grant “Spiked Ipomopsis”

Not often collected around Golden s.l., those collections that have location data are from South Table Mountain and above Deadman Gulch at the edge of the survey field. There are two historic collections that imply they were made at the base of Lookout Mountain, which probably means the Survey Field or Beverly Heights.

A little more broadly, there are collections in Jefferson County from the extensively-collected localities of Rocky Flats and Chatfield.

First described as Gilia spicata by Nuttall (1848b) from a collection on the Platte River at Scott's Bluff, Nebraska.

 

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward L., 1898b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Microsteris gracilis;

Area List: Golden.  

Microsteris gracilis (Douglas ex Hook.) Greene “Slender Phlox”

There are three collections of Microsteris gracilis (Douglas ex Hook.) Greene “Slender Phlox” in Golden s.l. two at the south end of town: on South Table Mountain and Heritage Square, and the third at the generic location of Golden. Collections in Jefferson County are along the base of the Front Range and slightly into the foothills. This is one plant I would have expected to find at Ranson/Edwards. Colorado state collections are from the Front Range and the western slope, though not in the highest mountain ranges.

Originally described by David Douglas from specimens seen along the Spokane River, published variously by Hooker as Colomia gracilis, Gilia gracilis, and Phlox gracilis. Greene (1898b) made sense of them and proposed Microsteris gracilis.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Phlox longifolia;  

Phlox longifolia Nutt. “Longleaf Phlox”

There were two PhloxPhloxes ? — that were reported for Golden s.l. They are Phlox longifolia Nutt. “Longleaf Phlox” and P. multiflora A. Nelson “Mountain Phlox.” As it happened, both were found only on the north slopes of North Table Mountain. And with two doubtful exceptions, these are the only Phlox collected in Jefferson County.

It is always a little suspicious when two uncommon, similar-appearing species are found in close proximity, and nowhere else. It is possible that one or more of the collections are misidentified and that only one species is found at this location. In this case, I think the single voucher determined P. longifolia is actually P. multiflora and I have changed my records. However, the voucher needs to be reviewed in the herbarium and a determination made whether to retain the determination P. longifolia or annotate it as P. multiflora.

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Nelson, Aven, 1898a.
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Phlox multiflora;

Area List: Golden.  

Phlox multiflora A. Nelson “Mountain Phlox”

Mountain Phlox — Phlox multiflora — is the other Phlox that has been reported for Golden s.l. on the north side of North Table Mountain. I think that it is the only Phlox found there and reports of P. longifolia are misidentifications. Comparing the various floras (Weber & Wittman, 2012, and Ackerfield, 2015), it is easy to confuse the two taxa. The two taxa are very similar, and in fact P. multiflora was a segregate of P. longifolia (Nelson, 1898). Regardless, there are three collections of P. multiflora from the north side of North Table Mountain, the only place the taxon has been collected in Jefferson County. As it turns out, though, in 2021 with Cindy Trujillo, we saw a Phlox in multiple places along Tin Cup Ridge and in Apex Park. It was too late to collect so that will have to be a project for 2022.
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1814, Phlox, tentatively determined as P. multiflora.
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1653, Phlox multiflora

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Polemonium foliosissimum;

Area List: Golden.  

Polemonium foliosissimum A. Gray “Towering Jacob's Ladder”

There are several older (1870s) collections of Polemonium listing Golden as the location. Prime among them is Marcus E. Jones #299 of P. foliosissimum, but also collections by E. L. Greene of P. delicatum and P. viscosum. Of these, it seems possible that P. foliosissimum might be located again, perhaps on the slopes of Lookout Mountain or Mount Galbraith. Other collections of P. foliosissimum were made in Golden Gate Canyon State Mark, Clear Creek Canyon, Evergreen, and Pine, i.e., in the foothills of the Front Range. Colorado state collections are from the Front Range to the west.

Treated as a variety of P. caeruleum by Gray (1870), this plant was well-known to a variety of collectors, such as Geyer, Fendler, Parry, Vasey, Watson, &c. Then elevated to the rank of species by Gray (1878). The oldest extant collection (SEINet 2022) is from the Mexican Boundary Survey, Bigelow s.n., October 1851 (7?), Banks of the Mimbres, New Mexico, .

 

Literature Cited:
- Hayden, F. V., 1870.
- Mabry, Makenzie E., and Michael G. Simpson, 2018.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Cryptantha virgata;

Area List: Golden.  

Cryptantha virgata (Porter) Payson “Miner"s Candle”

“Miner"s Candle” — Cryptantha virgata (Porter) Payson — is very distinctive and easy to recognize. It is commonly found on North and South Table Mountains, but also in North Washington Open Space and Tin Cup Ridge. It will populate disturbed areas, for example, the spoils pile from the basalt quary on North Table Mountain. Miner's Candle is widespread in Jefferson County though usually in hilly locations rather than on the plains. Most collections are along the Front Range, with a few scattered collections in the interior valleys.

The basionym is Eritrichium virgatum Porter, first published in F. V.Hayden, Geol. Rep. (1870), citing a collection by B. H. Smith, near Denver, Colorado Territory, in 1869. It has been placed variously in Krynitzkia (A. Gray, 1885) and Oreocarya (Greene, 1887) before being placed in Cryptantha (Payson, 1927). Our Colorado authors, Weber & Wittmann (2012) and Ackerfield (2015), treat Oreocarya at the rank of genus, whereas others (Kelley, Simpson, and Hasenstab-Lehman in Baldwin, et al., 2012) treat it as a section of Cryptantha. Phylogenetic evidence from some of those same authors is accumulating that it makes better sense to treating it as Oreocarya, c.f., Mabry & Simpson (2018).

Full Size Image
Cryptantha virgata beside the Nightbird Gulch Trail.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ellisia nyctelea;

Area List: Golden.  

Ellisia nyctelea (L.) L. “Aunt Lucy”

“Aunt Lucy” or Ellisia nyctelea (L.) L. is a funny little native weed that can be easily overlooked or dismissed. I first saw it hidden in mown grasses on the access road to the North Table Mountain Water Company tank on the north side of North Table Mountain. Since then it has appeared along my fence by my alley. It is rampant in my son's Morrison garden. Regardless, there are only 12 collections in Jefferson County, mostly made at the intensely or systematically collected sites, such as Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms. Colorado collections are concentrated along the Front Range with a few collections out on the plains and even fewer collections in the interior valleys.

The specific epithet nyctelea is credited to Linnaeus, from collections made in Virginia, though it took Linnaeus and other botanists of his time a couple tries to get it placed in the correct family and genus.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:   Huestis, Wm. S.;  Notes on Heliotropium curassavicum;
• Tilting Mesa Trail:   at pond;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1959, 21 Jun 2018;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1959, Heliotropium curassavicum

Area List: Golden.  

Heliotropium curassavicum L. “Seaside Heliotrope”

Not seen in the Metro Denver since 1916 when Wm. Huestis collected it in the Berkeley suburb of Denver. Rediscovered on North Table Mountain in 2018 by Bob Legier. There are just a few small plants. Colorado collections are concentrated in the Denver Metro area, the eastern San Luis Valley, and the wetter areas of the southeastern plains, such as Neenoshe Reservoir.

It was commonly grown in the pre-Linnaean gardens of Europe and described by Linnaeus (1753) as living in the warm maritime regions of America.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Hydrophyllum fendleri;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1396, Hydrophyllum fendleri

Area List: Golden.  

Hydrophyllum fendleri (A. Gray) A. Heller “Fendler's Waterleaf”

Collections of “Fendler's Waterleaf” — Hydrophyllum fendleri (A. Gray) A. Heller — have been made on North Table Mountain and in the Survey Field. It probably occurs in other spaces where the habitat is conducive. It is found in northern Jefferson County, but not in the southern part of the county, which is a little bit of a puzzle. The Colorado distribution is from the Front Range west, except for northwest corner of the state.

First published as Hydrophyllum occidentale var. Fendleri by A. Gray (1875), Heller (1905) revised fendleri to the rank of species.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Lappula occidentalis;

Area List: Golden.  

Lappula occidentalis (S. Watson) Greene “Flatspine Stickseed”

Widespread in Golden s.l. and probably ubiquitous. Jefferson County collections are scattered along the Front Range including the intensely collected locations of Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms. The oldest collection is A. A. Beetle B-2046 8 Jul 1937 at Shaffers Crossing (US Hwy 285 at Elk Creek Road). The author's collections were made at Ranson/Edwards, North Table Mountain, and Tin Cup Ridge. The oldest Colorado collections appear to be those of Parry and Hall & Harbour made in 1862. Some authors, notably Ackerfield (2015), state that the species is introduced to Colorado. Weber & Wittmann (2012) are silent on the matter. POWO (2021) state that is it native to Colorado, and the FNANM volume on the Boraginaceae has yet to tbe published.

The few Jefferson County collections of Lappula occidentalis that have been determined to an infraspecific name have been determined a mix of variety occidentalis and variety cupulata (A. Gray) Higgins.

 

Literature Cited:
- Lehman, Johann G. C., 1818.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Lithospermum incisum;

Area List: Golden.  

Lithospermum incisum Lehm. “Narrowleaf Stoneseed”

“Narrowleaf Stoneseed” — Lithospermum incisum Lehm. — is ubitquitous in Golden s.l. open spaces, though rarely in large quantities or dense patches. In Jefferson County, the plant is found right along the Front Range, and not in the interior of the county. Otherwise, it is found throughout Colorado, including on the eastern plains and the interior valleys.

The first recorded collection was by Thomas Nuttall at Prairie du Chien, on the Mississippi River at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin. This was most likely in 1810. Nuttall also recorded the plant along the upper Missouri River, which would have been in 1811. Pursh (1814) was the first to put the plant in print, as Batschia longiflora, noting that he had seen the plant in in Nuttall's herbarium. Nuttall (1818) published the same name as a new species. Lehman (1818) moved the plant to Lithospermum, but the specific name longiflora was not available, so Lehman used L. incisum.

 

Literature Cited:
- Mackenzie, Kenneth Kent, 1905.
- Weakley, Alan S., Richard J. LeBlond, Bruce A. Sorrie, C. Theo Witsell, L. Dwayne Estes, Janchi Gandhi, Katherine Gould Mathews, and Atsushi Ebihara, 2011.
- Weigend, M., M. Gottschlinf, F. Selvi, and H. H. Hilger, 2009.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Lithospermum occidentale;

Area List: Golden.  

Lithospermum occidentale (Mack.) Weakley, Witsell & D. Estes “Western Gromwell” nee “Marbleseed”

“Western Marbleseed” — Lithospermum occidentale (Mack.) Weakley, Witsell & D. Estes — is fairly common in Golden s.l. with collections on North and South Table Mountains, Apex Park and the Survey Field. It is very likely ubiquitous but its unassuming appearance and lack of showy flowers probably leads it to be overlooked.

Searching for historic collections can be tricky with this taxon. Two reasons. First, it is often included as a subspecific taxon under both Onosmodium bejariense and O. molle without a cross-reference between the two, so a search for the species must be entered under both of those specific epithets. (It is also sometimes treated as a variety and sometimes as a subspecies, without cross-reference in the taxon trees, but searching only for the specific epithet in Colorado will circumvent that problem.) Second, it has recently been moved into Lithospermum from Onosmodium (Weakley, et al., 2011) and some of the taxon trees, most notably that of SEINet, have not been updated to cross reference between it multiple names in Onosmodium and Lithospermum. Consequently, when constructing a list of collections of this taxon (regardless of what name we put on it), it is necessary to enter all the names above into the search string to retrieve all the known collections.

Searching for the taxon under multiple names yields 24 collections in Jefferson County, mostly from locations that have been intensely collected, such as Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms, but also Ranson/Edwards and one collection from the Majestic View Nature Center. Around Colorado, most of the collections have been made along the Front Range with a few collections out on the plains and in the interior valleys.

As implied above, quite a few names have been applied to our taxon, most of them in Onosmodium. The first name that recognized it as a separate taxon was Onosmodium occidentale Mack. (Mackenzie, 1905). It was since placed in a succession of subspecies and varieties under Onosmodium bejariense and O. molle. Weigend, et al. (2009) with their aptly named paper, “Marbleseeds are Gromwells,” showed that separating Onosmodium and other taxa from Lithospermum renders the latter paraphyletic. Weakley, et al. (2011) published the names requred to place our plant back at the species rank, this time within Lithospermum in place of Onosmodium.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2107, Lithospermum occidentale

 

Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustus Pyramus, 1836.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Mertensia lanceolata;

Area List: Golden.  

Mertensia lanceolata (Pursh) DC. “Prairie Bluebells”

Ubiquitous in Golden s.l., usually in areas with a more mesic microclimate, such as afternoon shade of rocks or openings in a ponderosa pine woodland. Generally found throughout Jefferson County, though less dense in the southern part of the county where here has been less exploration. Common in the mountains of Colorado and around the edges of the ranges.

The first name applied to “Prairie Bluebells” was Pulmonaria lanceolata Pursh (1814), described from a collection he had seen in Bradbury's herbarium. Nuttall (1818) did not agree with the specific epithet lanceolata saying that it was inapplicable, so he attempted to replace it with marginata. Of course, this failed because lanceolata had priority, regardless of how inapplicable it might be. Nuttall (1818) did note, however, that the plant belonged in Pulmonaria section Mertensia, a name that DeCandolle (1846) elevated to the rank of genus.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Phacelia hastata;  Notes on Phacelia heterophylla;

Area List: Golden.  

Phacelia heterophylla Pursh “Varileaf Phacelia”

In Golden s.l., Phacelia heterophylla Pursh “Varileaf Phacelia” is known from North and South Table Mountains, Tin Cup Ridge, and in Stonebridge HOA lands (at the base of Apex Park). There is one collection of a similar and closely related Phacelia, P. hastata Dougl. ex Lehm. made by Marcus E. Jones in “foot hills near Golden.” These two taxa are very closely related and therefore treated together here. Collections are scattered throughout Jefferson County, in the intensely-collected locations, and the interior valleys. They are also widely distributed in Colorado except on the eastern plains. These are both Cordilleran taxa, known from the Rocky Mountain front west nearly to the Pacific coast. The author has collected both of them in the Mono Lake Basin, California.

The name was published by Pursh (1814) from a collection by Lewis & Clark on the Kooskooskee (Clearwater) River.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Plagiobothrys scouleri hispidulus;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1452, Plagiobothrys scouleri var. hispidulus

Area List: Golden.  

Plagiobothrys scouleri (Hook. & Arn.) I.M. Johnst. var. hispidulus (Greene) Dorn “Scouler's popcornflower”

Found only in emphemeral ponds on North and South Table Mountains, Plagiobothrys scouleri (Hook. & Arn.) I.M. Johnst. var. hispidulus (Greene) Dorn “Scouler's popcornflower” is common along drying pond margins or in moist muddy soil in open meadows. The only other Jefferson County collection is at Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space by the author. Colorado collections are mostly west of the Front Range wherever suitable habitat is found.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Phyla cuneifolia;

Area List: Golden.  

Phyla cuneifolia (Torr.) Greene “Wedgeleaf”

One collection on South Table Mountain. Other Jefferson County collections are in the Denver area, plus the intensely-collected Rocky Flats. With the exception of populated areas along the Front Range, most Colorado state collections are out on the plains.

Probably collected by Edwin James, M.D. on the Platte(?) and described by Torrey (1828) as Zapania cuneifolia, later placed in Phyla as P. cuneifolia by Greene (1899).

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Verbena hastata;

Area List: Golden.  

Verbena hastata L. “Swamp Verbena”

One Marcus E. Jones collection that may or may not be from Golden s.l. A plant of moist areas, it has been collected at Chatfield Farms and Rocky Flats, so Golden s.l. is not out of the question. Most Colorado state collections are along the Front Range and then out on the plains.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) as being found in moist Canada.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Dracocephalum;

Area List: Golden.  

Dracocephalum parviflorum Nutt. “American Dragonhead”

For Golden s.l., known only from a Marcus E. Jones collection from “… foot hills near Golden …” Also found at Rocky Flats and Chatfield, which have been intensely collected.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Lycopus americanus;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1287, Lycopus americanus

Area List: Golden.  

Lycopus americanus W. P. C. Barton “American Bugleweed”

There is one collection of Lycopus americanus W. P. C. Barton “American Bugleweed” in Golden s.l., made by Ernest H Brunquist in 1960 in connection with the archeological project of the Peabody Museum. There are quite a few other collections in Jefferson County, including one by the author at Ranson/Edwards. Colorado collections are concentrated mostly in the urban areas with a few scattered around the state in what would appear to be multiple disjunct populations.

The name was first applied by Muhlenberg (1813), though this is treated as nom. inval because there was no description, and no means given to distinquish L. americanus from L. virginicus. Barton (1815) published the name again, citing Muhlenberg, but also noting the plant was “Very closely related to Mentha, but no odor” and “leaves sinuate-serrate, apendiculate.” I have been unable to determine what parts of the plant are appendiculate.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Mentha arvensis;

Area List: Golden.  

Mentha arvensis L. “Wild Mint”

Several collections and observations including North and South Table Mountains, and Apex Gulch. The author has collected it at Ranson/Edwards, Lippincott Ranch, and Rush Creek, Mono County, California. Most Jefferson County collections are around the urban areas and up into the nearby foothills. Colorado collections are scattered around the state up to about 9500 ft. elevation.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) as “She lives in the European countryside frequently after harvest.”

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Monarda fistulosa;

Area List: Golden.  

Monarda fistulosa L. “Wild Bergamot”

“Wild Bergamot” — Monarda fistulosa L. — is common in Golden s.l. having been collected or observed in all the open spaces. It tends to be in more mesic sites, perhaps a little more moist or somewhat protected.

The plant was first described by Linnaeus (1753) who noted that it lived in Canada. It was well-known in Europe as Linnaeus noted its presense in the Uppsala garden, the Clifford garden, and the Royal Garden of Leiden.

Jefferson County collections are found throughout the county. Colorado collections are mostly along the Front Range and in the interior valleys.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Monarda pectinata;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2349, Monarda pectinata

Area List: Golden.  

Monarda pectinata Nutt. “Plains Beebalm”

Collected on North and South Table Mountains and mid-slope in Apex Park. Fairly broadly distrubuted in Jefferson County and into the foothills. Around Colorado found mostly in the foothills and valleys, with some on the eastern plains.

Described by Nuttall (1848b) from plants collected by William Gambel. Gambel made this collection near Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2349, Monarda pectinata
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1236, Monarda pectinata

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Prunella vulgaris;

Area List: Golden.  

Prunella vulgaris L. “Common Selfheal”

Prunella vulgaris L. “Common Selfheal” is circumpolar in distribution, ranging as far south as Central America, northern Africa, and Indo-China. In Golden s.l. it is found in wet areas of North Table Mountain. Most of the Jefferson County collections are just along the base of the Front Range, and barely into the foothills. For example, the author has collected it at Ranson/Edwards and Lippincott Ranch. Most Colorado collections are found from the Front Range and to the west. The oldest Colorado collection is John H. Redfield #525, 22 Jul 1872 from Arkansas Cańon, Colorado.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Salvia reflexa;

Area List: Golden.  

Salvia reflexa Hornemann “Lanceleaf Sage”

Two collections, one on South Table Mountain, and the other in Golden, not otherwise located.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Scutellaria brittonii;
• Field Notes:  8 Oct 1882;

Area List: Golden.  

Scutellaria brittonii Porter “Britton's Skullcap”

Scutellaria brittonii Porter “Britton's Skullcap” is common in Golden s.l., and probably could be found in every open space. I generally see it on slopes, among grasses or shrubs, and sometimes on bare slopes that would seem to be hot and dry.

This skullcap is broadly distributed in Jefferson County. The author has also collected it at the Buffalo Creek Recreation Area. State-wide, collections are mostly from the base of the Front Range up to the mid-elevations.

The name, in honor of Nathaniel L. Britton, was applied to our Rocky Mountain plant by Porter (1894) in a curious way, by describing what it is not; something that I would think would cause the name to be declared invalid. Nevertheless, as it happens, Nathaniel L. Britton was in Golden, 8 Oct 1882, primarily as part of a geological expedition, and made eleven plant collections that are housed by NY.

 

Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1895.
- Waterfall, Umaldy T., 1950.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Physalis hederifolia var. comata;

Area List: Golden.  

Physalis hederifolia A. Gray var. comata (Rydb.) Waterfall “Ivy-Leaved Ground Cherry”

Found on North and South Table Mountains and steep slopes adjacent to Deadman Gulch. Jefferson County collections are along the base of the Front Range and in Platte Canyon. Colorado state collections are along the northern Front Range and out on the plains. Variety fendleri is more common in the southern part of the state.

First described as P. comata Rydberg (1895), who expressed doubts that it was a species, but may be better treated as a variety of P. heterophylla or P. hederaefolia. It was relegated to a variety of P. hederaefolia Gray by Waterfall (1950).

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1511, Physalis hederifolia var. comata

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Physalis hispida;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2662, Physalis virginiana.

Area List: Golden.  

Physalis hispida (Waterf.) Cronquist “Prairie Ground Cherry”

One collection on South Table Mountain and a possible sighting on Tin Cup Ridge. Most Jefferson County collections are right along the base of the Front Range, including a collection by the author at Lippincott Ranch. At the state level, collections are mostly along the base of the Front Range and out on the plains.

Our current name was elevated to the rank of species (Cronquist,1984) from a variety of P. virginiana Waterfall (1958). The plant is also sometimes treated as a subspecies of Physalis pumila (Hinton, 1976).

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1834b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Physalis longifolia;

Area List: Golden.  

Physalis longifolia Nutt. “Longleaf Groundcherry”

So far, there is only one collection of P. longifolia from Golden s.l. That would be the author's collection in 2020 made on a waste pile near Dakota Ridge (northernmost Golden). There is also a collection of P. virginiana, the next taxon, from South Table Mountain and an observation of same from North Table Mountain. Ackerfield (2015) notes that many collections determined P. virginiana are actually P. longifolia, so perhaps all these collections need to be revisited.

Nuttall (1834) described P. longifolia from a collection made on the banks of the Arkansas, near Belle Point.

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Physalis virginiana;  

Physalis virginiana Mill. “Virginia Groundcherry”

There is one collection of a Physalis for which one voucher is determined P. virginiana. It happens to be from South Table Mountain. The other voucher is filed without annotation under P. longifolia. There are no other collections from Jefferson County.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Solanum triflorum;

Area List: Golden.  

Solanum triflorum Nutt. “Cutleaf Nightshade”

Described by Nuttall (1818) as a weed in the gardens of the Mandans and Minitarees near Fort Mandan. In Golden s.l. it is considered native but with weedy tendencies. It has been collected at 9th and Ford Streets and at the Magic Mountain archeological dig.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Limosella aquatica;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1689.4, Juncus bufonius and Coll. No. 1689.6, Limosella aquatica.

Area List: Golden.  

Limosella aquatica L. “Water Mudwort”

Found in muddy places on North and South Table Mountains in Golden s.l. Other Jefferson County collections are along the base of the Front Range, such as Rocky Flats and a collection by the author on a terrace above Coal Creek. Colorado state collections are scattered around the state, mostly from the Front Range to the west.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) as living in inundated areas of northern Europe, its native range is subarctic and temperate northern hemisphere to Mexico, Ecuador and Peru.

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey John, 1859.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Castilleja integra;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1614, Castilleja integra, along the top of the North Washington Open Space.

Area List: Golden.  

Castilleja integra A. Gray “Wholeleaf Indian Paintbrush”

Our common paintbrush, Castilleja integra A. Gray “Wholeleaf Indian Paintbrush,” has been found in every Golden s.l. open space from Dakota Ridge in the north to Tin Cup Ridge in the south. In Jefferson County, it is found in the foothills and on the plains of the northern part of the county, but no further south than the Buffalo Creek Recreation Area. Colorado collections are in the Rocky Mountains from the Denver Metro area to the south.

The name was applied by A. Gray in Torrey (1859). Curiously, Gray cited several collections in his description of the taxon, resulting in several syntypes instead of a holotype.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1865, Castilleja integra

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.
- Schneider, Adam C., 2016.
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Orobanche fasciculata;

Area List: Golden.  

Orobanche fasciculata Nutt. “Clustered Broomrape”

This parasitic plant called “Clustered Broomrape.” — Orobanche fasciculata Nutt. — is rarely seen in many places around Golden s.l. from Dakota Ridge in the north to Eagle Ridge and Kinney Run in the south. The plant itself is not rare, but two things make it unusual to see: 1) its unassuming appearance, and 2) individual plants are widely spaced in the field. Nevertheless there are eight collections in Golden, and three more observations.

Other collections in Jefferson County include Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms, two of the best-collected places in Colorado, and a few other collections up into the foothills. Collected pretty much throughout Colorado, except for the southeastern plains.

Named by Nuttall (1818) for plants he collected around Fort Mandan on the Missouri River. Nuttall (1818) also proposed O. ludoviciana that he collected at Fort Mandan. This species is not known from Jefferson County, though there are collections from Boulder and Denver Counties.

Orobanche is a Linnean (1753) genus name applied originally to three species in Europe, and two from Virginia when it was an English colony. Recent phylogenetic work (Schneider, 2016) suggests that the North American Orobanche form a monophyletic clade. Aphyllon Mitch. has been proposed as the generic name for the clade.

Among Colorado authors, Weber & Wittmann (2012) split the Colorado Orobanche s.l. between Aphyllon and Orobanche. This would be roughly similar to Gray's (1856, 2nd ed.) treatment of Aphyllon while treating section Gymnocaulis as a member of Orobanche. Meanwhile, Ackerfield (2015) retains all the Orobanche together in that genus.

Full Size Image
Obs. No. 1567, Orobanche fasciculata
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1386, Orobanche fasciculata

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Orobanche uniflora;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1372, Orobanche uniflora

Area List: Golden.  

Orobanche uniflora L. “Naked Broomrape”

There is only one collection of Orobanche uniflora L. “Naked Broomrape” in Golden s.l. and that on South Table Mountain. Most of the county collections are at the north end of the county, at Rocky Flats and Ranson/Edwards. At the state level, collections are mostly on the west slope.

The name was applied by Linnaeus (1753) describing a plant that lived in Virginia.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Orthocarpus luteus;

Area List: Golden.  

Orthocarpus luteus Nutt. “Yellow Owls Clover”

There are two collections of Yellow Owls Clover — Orthocarpus luteus Nutt. — one that is definitely from Golden s.l. and one that may be from Golden. The questionable one is an F. W. Pennell (#6380, 11 Aug 1915) collection made at “knolls along streamlet … southwest of Golden. The definite collection was by E. H. Brunquist (#135, 4 Aug 1960) near Apex Gulch in connections with the Peabody Museum excavation at Magic Mountain.

There are a few other collections scattered around Jefferson County, in places such as Genessee, Flying J Ranch Park, and Meyer Ranch Park. The author has also collected it at Buffalo Creek Recreation Area. Yellow Owls Clover is found occasionally throughout central and western Colorado, and more broadly the western states.

The genus Orthocarpus and O. luteus was published by Nuttall (1818) who carefully distinguished it from Melampyrum a genus that Nuttall had experience with, but does not occur in Colorado. The common name of Melampyrum is “cow wheat.”

One other Orthocarpus, O. purpureoalbus, is found in the southernmost counties of Colorado.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Erythranthe floribunda;
Full Size ImageLocation of Coll. No. 2560, Erythranthe floribunda

Area List: Golden.  

Erythranthe floribunda (Douglas ex Lindl.) G. L. Nesom “Many Flowered Monkey Flower”

Found in springs, seeps, and small streams, Erythranthe floribunda (Douglas ex Lindl.) G. L. Nesom “Many Flowered Monkey Flower,” is common in Golden s.l., collected on North and South Table Mountains, and in Apex Park. It is found in northern Jefferson County, along the base of the foothills with a few collections in the lower foothills. The wuthor has also collected this at Ranson/Edwards. Mostly in the foothills and mountains, but not out on the plains.

First described as Mimulus floribundus by Lindley (1827) from plants grown from seeds sent by David Douglas. Placed in Erythranthe by Barker, et al. (2012) in a major reorganization of Mimulus.

The next two, E. glabrata and E. guttata, are known from single collections or observations. Their presence in Golden s.l. seems unlikely.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Erythranthe glabrata;

Area List: Golden.  

Erythranthe glabrata (Kunth) G. L. Nesom “Roundleaf Monkeyflower”

There is only one collection of Erythranthe glabrata (Kunth) G. L. Nesom “Roundleaf Monkeyflower” in Golden s.l. and the possibility of a second. The one definite collection was made on the southeast side of Castle Rock. The other was made at an unknown spring in the vicinity of Golden, and has multiple determinations. Most Jefferson County collections were made at the intensely collected Rocky Flats. Colorado collections are few in number and scattered widely around the state.

Described by Kunth (1818) from collections by Moran in Mexico.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Erythranthe guttata;

Area List: Golden.  

Erythranthe guttata (Fisch. ex DC.) G.L. Nesom “Seep Monkeyflower”

Known only as an observation from North Table Mountain.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Collinsia;  

Collinsia Nutt.

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Collinsia parviflora;

Area List: Golden.  

Collinsia parviflora Lindl. “Maiden Blue-eyed Mary”

Numerous collections in more mesic locations, Collinsia parviflora Lindl. “Maiden Blue-eyed Mary,” has been collected on North and South Table Mountain, Cressmans Gulch, the Survey Field, and Apex Park. Most Jefferson County collections have been in the northern part of the county, on the plains and up into the foothills. Besides Golden, the author has collected it at Ranson/Edwards and Mount Falcon. There are no collections from the southern interior of Jefferson County. Not found out on the plains, it is Colorado's only Collinsia.

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, 1819.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Gratiola neglecta;

Area List: Golden.  

Gratiola neglecta Torr. “Clammy Hedge Hyssop”

There are two collections, one by the author, of Gratiola neglecta Torr. “Clammy Hedge Hyssop” on top of North Table Mountain. Jefferson County collections are on the higher plains, primarily at Lippincott Ranch, Ranson/Edwards and Rocky Flats. For a pland considered native to the continental United States, there are few collections in Colorado, mostly in the urban areas along the Front Range, with a few scattered in the interior valleys.

The name was applied by John Torrey (1819) in his catalog of plants within 30 miles of New York.

 

Literature Cited:
- Fernandez-Mazuecos, Mario, Jose Luis Blanco-Pastor, and Pablo Vargas, 2013.
- Scheele, Adolf, 1848.
- Sutton, D. A., 1988.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Dakota Ridge;  Notes on Linaria canadensis texana, Pennell, 1921;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2077, 14 Jun 2019;

Locations: Dakota Ridge.

Area List: Golden.  

Linaria canadensis (L.) Dum.-Cours. var. texana (Scheele) Pennell “Blue Toadflax, Texas Toadflax”

A commonly used synonym for this plant is Nuttallanthus texanus (Scheele) D. A. Sutton. This name was proposed by Sutton (1988) to separate the new world Linaria from the old world Linaria. However, recent phylogenetic work (Fernandez-Mazuecos, et al., 2013) shows that the new world plants need to be retained in the new world genus Linaria.
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2077, Linaria canadensis var. texana
  One collection in 1915 alongside the railroad at the west edge of Golden, and then not seen again until 2019 when it was found on Dakota Ridge. Also collected by Loraine & Dick Yeatts at White Ranch. Generally thought to be an annual. Other Jefferson County collections are at Rocky Flats. Colorado state collections are concentrated along the Front Range in the urban areas.

Described by Scheele (1848, p. 761-2) from a collection by Romer made between Houston and Austin, Texas.

 

Literature Cited:
- Bentham, George, 1846.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Penstemon secundiflorus;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1639, Penstemon secundiflorus

Area List: Golden.  

Penstemon secundiflorus Benth. “Sidebells Penstemon”

Found in every Golden s.l. open space. Jefferson County collections along the base of the Front Range and barely into the foothills, with just a few in the interior of southern county. Most collections along the Front Range and interior valleys. The native range is Wyoming to Mexico (Sonora, Chihuahua).

Name applied by Bentham (1846) to a specimen seen in Torrey's herbarium, possibly a Fremont collection.

Our plant is similar to P. virgatus var. asa-grayi and may be distinguished by leaves that are thick and glaucous, and a staminode that is widened at the tip and bearded.

 

Literature Cited:
- Bentham, George, 1846.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Penstemon strictus;

Locations: Sweetwater River.

Area List: Golden.  

Penstemon strictus Benth. “Rocky Mountain Penstemon”

There is only one collection of Penstemon strictus Benth. “Rocky Mountain Penstemon” in Golden s.l. and that is on the south bank of Clear Creek between Washington Avenue and Illinois Street. I suspect this is a garden escapee. Experience with this taxon in my garden suggests that it can spread rapidly. The other two collections in Jefferson County are at Rocky Flats, and at Chatfield Farms, both could also be reasonably expected to be garden escapees. There are a few other Colorado state collections in the urban areas, but most are in the interior mountains.

The name was applied by Bentham in DeCandolle (1846) citing collections by Fremont on the Sweetwater River, Wyoming.

Our plant is similar to P. virgatus var. asa-grayi and may be distinguished by leaves that are thick and glaucous, and a staminode that is widened at the tip and bearded.

 

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1862.
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1917.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Penstemon virens;

Area List: Golden.  

Penstemon virens Pennell ex Rydb. “Front Range Beardtongue”

Very common in Golden s.l. open spaces, Penstemon virens Pennell ex Rydb. “Front Range Beardtongue” is often found on open dry or rocky places. It reminds me of the smaller Penstemons found on the east side of the Sierra Nevada. It is found throughout Jefferson County. In addition to Golden, the author has collected it at Ranson/Edwards, Lippincott Ranch, and the Buffalo Creek Recreation Area. Colorado distribution is along the Front Range from Colorado City north to the Laramie Mountains of Wyoming.

The name P. virens was applied by Rydberg (1917) apparently at the suggestion of Pennell who collected the type. The type locality is the general area of Red Rocks Amphitheater though the amphitheater did not exist at the time. As an entity it was known well before then, as early as Nuttall's 1834 trip to Oregon Territory, and by Parry's collection, and Hall & Harbour collections. However, it was treated as a form of P. pubescens until treated as P. humilis Gray (1862), of which part was segregated into P. virens Rydberg (1917) based upon Pennel's type.

Full Size Image
Habitat of Coll. No. 1107, Penstemon virens

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Penstemon virgatus var. asa-grayi;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2575, Penstemon virgatus var.asa-grayi

Area List: Golden.  

Penstemon virgatus A. Gray var. asa-grayi (Crosswh.) Dorn “Upright Blue Beardtongue”

Found in southern Golden s.l., Penstemon virgatus A. Gray var. asa-grayi (Crosswh.) Dorn “Upright Blue Beardtongue,” on South Table Mountain, Eagle Ridge, and Lookout Mountain, the species is occasionally found along the base of the Front Range from Rocky Flats to Chatfield Farms, and then between Empire and Georgetown, in Clear Creek County.

The type selected by Crosswhite (1965) is Patterson #258 made 13 July 1892 in “mountains about the head waters of Clear Creek near Empire.

A search for this taxon in SEINet will be redirected to P. unilateralis. I believe this is an error. Crosswhite (1965) specifically published P. virgatus ssp. asa-grayi because P. unilateralis is a synonym of P. secundiflorus. This is apparently still true as the FNANM entry for var. asa-grayi states, “The name Penstemon unilateralis Rydberg, a synonym of P. secundiflorus, was widely misapplied to this taxon in much of the 1900s.”

Our taxon is similar to P. secundiflorus above, and may be distinguished by leaves that are green, and not blue-green and glaucous, and the staminode is not widened at the tip which is glabrous.

 

Literature Cited:
- Jacquin, Nikolaus Joseph, Freiherr van, 1781-1793.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Plantago patagonica;

Area List: Golden.  

Plantago patagonica Jacq. “Woolly Plantain”

Found on North and South Table Mountains, and from Dakota Ridge in the north to Tin Cup Ridge in the south. Most Jefferson County collections are along the base of the Front Range. Colorado collections are at lower elevations on the east and west slopes, and out on the eastern plains.

Described and illustrated in Jacquin (1793, v. 2, p. 9) from a collection made on the Champion River of Patagonia. Native to North and South America.

   

Veronica L.

In Jefferson County, there are eighty collections of Veronica that have been determined eight taxa, four of them annual, and four perennial.
  • Annual
    • V. arvensis L. Corn Speedwell
    • V. biloba L. Two-Lobe Speedwell
    • V. peregrina ssp. xalapensis (Kunth) Pennell. Hairy Purslane Speedwell
    • V. persica Poir. Bird-Eye Speedwell
  • Perennial
    • V. americana Schwein. ex Benth. American Brooklime.
    • V. anagalis-aquatica L. Blue Water Speedwell
    • V. catenata Pennell. Water Speedwell
    • V. serpyllifolia L. Thyme-Leaf Speedwell

Of these, seven have been collected or observed in Golden s.l.. V. persica has not been found here. V. catenata has, though it should be pointed out that Ackerfield (2015) treats it as a synonym of V. anagallis-aquatica.

 

Literature Cited:
- Bentham, George, 1846.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Veronica americana
Full Size ImageHabit of Coll. No. 1024, Veronica americana

Area List: Golden.  

Veronica americana Schwein. ex Benth. “American Speedwell”

Veronica americana Schwein. ex Benth. “American Speedwell” is one of the perennials and has been found on South Table Mountain, and in Apex Gulch. Jefferson County collections are at the base of the Front Range and barely into the foothills. Colorado collections are from the Front Range, and the east and west slope, but not out on the plains. Its native range is Russian Far East to north central Japan, and North America.

The name was published by Bentham, who wrote the chapter on Scrophulariaceae in DeCandolle's (1846) Prodromo. Bentham worked from a manuscript by Schweinitz, abbreviated Schwein., who described the native range as North America from Canada to Carolina, and Oregon including Sitka. Lewis David de Schweinitz (13 February 1780 – 8 February 1834) was a German-American botanist and mycologist. He is considered by some the "Father of North American Mycology," but also made significant contributions to botany.

V. americana can be distinguished from the following (V. anagallis-aquatica and/or V. catenata) by the short-petiolate leaves.

The author has not seen this plant in Colorado, but has collected it near Mono Lake, Mono County, Colorado.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1024, Veronica americana

 

Literature Cited:
- Pennell, Francis W., 1921b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Veronica anagallis-aquatica;  Notes on Veronica catenata;

Area List: Golden.  

Veronica catenata Pennell “Water Speedwell”

There are two collections from Golden s.l. that are determined Veronica catenata Pennell “Water Speedwell.” They were made on South Table Mountain and at Heritage Square. Jefferson County collections are along the Front Range from Rocky Flats to Chatfield Farms. Colorado state collections are scattered around the state, concentrated in the urban areas.

There is a certain amount of uncertainty about V. catenata and the related V. anagallis-aquatica. Weber & Wittmann (2012) accept V. catenata for Colorado, and then note the possible presence of V. anagallis-aquatica saying that distinguishing the two “… is a difficult matter to decide; furthermore the two species hybridize, forming a very robust, sterile hybrid.” Ackerfield (2015) treats V. catenata Pennell as a synonym of V. anagallis-aquatica, and therefore the latter becomes native or not-introduced to Colorado. POWO (2022) accepts V. catenata and V. anagallis-aquatica as distinct species. FNANM is not published for Veronica, so that's no help. The author has put V. anagallis-aquatica on his collections, following Ackerfield (2015).

 

Literature Cited:
- Kunth, Carol Sigismund, 1815-1825.
- Pennell, Francis W., 1919c.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Veronica peregrina ssp. xalapensis;

Area List: Golden.  

Veronica peregrina L. ssp. xalapensis (Kunth) Pennell “Neckweed”

Veronica peregrina L. ssp. xalapensis (Kunth) Pennell “Neckweed” has been collected on North and South Table Mountains in addition to a single collection from the generic location of Golden by the author of the current name, Francis W. Pennell. Found in wet places along the base of the Front Range from Rocky Flats and Ranson/Edwards in the north to Chatfield Farms in the south, to Meyer Ranch in the foothills. Scattered throughout Colorado with a few collections out on the plains.

First named by Kunth (1818) for a plant collected near Xalapa, Mexico, and treated as a subspecies of Veronica peregrina by Pennell (1919) as part of his work on the Scrophulariaceae.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1135, Veronica peregrina ssp. xalapensis

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Galium boreale;

Area List: Golden.  

Galium boreale L. “Bedstraw”

This has been observed on North Table Mountain and mid-slope in Windy Saddle Park, but there are no collections in Golden s.l. There are a few collections in most areas of Jefferson County, including those by the author at Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space Park, and along Morrison Creek in the Buffalo Creek Recreation Area. Colorado state collections are in forests and meadows, and along streams from the Front Range to the west.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) as living in northern fields, and now thought to be native to subartic and temperate northern hemisphere.

Our current Flora of Colorado (Ackerfield, 2015) accepts G. boreale and places G. septentrionale Roem. & Schult. in synonomy, as does Plants of the World (Kew, 2022). Other floras, e.g., Weber & Wittmann (2012) treat our local Bedstraw as G. septentrionale.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Galium triflorum;

Area List: Golden.  

Galium triflorum Michx. “Fragrant Bedstraw”

Within Golden s.l., we only have a report of Galium triflorum Michx. “Fragrant Bedstraw” on North Table Mountain. It's possible the plant is here, and this possibility is bolstered by a collection of our plant in “… Tucker's gulch N of Golden …” by Lois S. Ehlers in 1922. How much north of Golden was she? Anyway, the Jefferson County collections are scattered around the county. And Colorado state collections are from the Front Range to the west.

Our plant was described by Michaux (1803) as “Habitat in umbrosis Canadae sylvis” or “It lives in shaded Canadian woods.”

 

Literature Cited:
- Hooker, Sir William Jackson, 1829-1840.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Symphoricarpos occidentalis;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1285, Symphoricarpos occidentalis

Area List: Golden.  

Symphoricarpos occidentalis Hook. “Western Snowberry”

There are a few collections of “Western Snowberry” — Symphoricarpos occidentalis Hook. — in Golden s.l., but I think really only one is reliably georeferenced, my no. 1506 along the Mesa Spur Trail on the lower north slopes of North Table Mountain. I have also collected it at Ranson/Edwards, and there are numerous collections at the usual intensely collected Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms. There are a few collections up into the foothills, e.g., Parmalee Gulch, but none southwest of Foxton. Colorado collections are concentrated around the urban areas, with some along the South Platte River, and just a few collections on the western slope.

The plant was described by Hooker (1840) from a collection by Richardson on the Franklin expedition (1819-22) and also citing collections by Drummond and Douglas. The name “occidentalis” perhaps reflects a lack of understanding of North American geography, certainly the plant was found west of centers of population at the time, but there are other taxa in Symphoricarpos that are concentrated further west.

 

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1852-1853.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Symphoricarpos rotundifolius;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1654, Symphoricarpos rotundifolius

Area List: Golden.  

Symphoricarpos rotundifolius A. Gray “Roundleaf Snowberry”

A little more common than the preceding, “Roundleaf Snowberry” — Symphoricarpos rotundifolius A. Gray — has been collected on North and South Table Mountains, in the Survey Field, and private lands at the base of the foothills. Most Jefferson County colletions are right around Golden, with a few from Rocky Flats. Collections in Colorado are from the Front Range to the west.

The plant was first described by A. Gray (1853) in Plantae Wrightianae, Texano - Neo-Mexicanae, a scientific account of the botanical collections of Mr. Charles Wright in 1851 and 1852.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Campanula rotundifolia;

Area List: Golden.  

Campanula rotundifolia L. “Harebell”

“Harebell” — Campanula rotundifolia L. — should be collected in each of Golden s.l. open spaces. If it hasn't been collected, that's probably an oversight. There are collections from throughout Jefferson County. Found in montane Colorado, though not out on the eastern plains, or in northwestern part of the state.

Originally described by Linnaeus (1753) with a habitat of European pastures.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Achillea millefolium;

Area List: Golden.  

Achillea millefolium L. “Common Yarrow”

Nearly ubiquitous, “Common Yarrow” — Achillea millefolium L. — has been collected on North and South Table Mountains, Lookout Mountain, and other places, but not on Dakota Ridge or North Washington Open Space. These are more likely oversight than absence.

Common Yarrow is found throughout Jefferson County, e.g., the author has collected it in the Buffalo Creek Recreation Area. Similarly, it is common throughout Colorado, except the eastern Plains, and the higher, drier valleys, such as the San Luis Valley.

Globally, the plant is native to the northern hemisphere. The name was published by Linnaeus (1753) who noted the plant was present in European meadows and pastures. Early explorers of North American, e.g., Pursh (1814) and Nuttall (1818) thought it was introduced from Europe. Torrey and Gray (1843) recognized that Common Yarrow was widely distributed in North America, though thought it may have been introduced into pastures.

Full Size Image
Habitat of Coll. No. 1485, Achillea millefolium
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2083, Achillea millifolium

 

Literature Cited:
- Moulton, Gary E., 1999.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1816.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Agoseris glauca;

Area List: Golden.  

Agoseris glauca (Pursh) Raf. “Pale Goat-Chicory”

There are two Agoseris found in Golden, one being A. glauca and the other A. parviflora. They are often confused for each other. Indeed, a synonym for A. parviflora is A. glauca var. laciniata (Eaton) Smiley and some herbaria continue to file their specimens under that name.

There is only one collection and one literature reference to A. glauca in Golden s.l. The one collection is in a Texas herbarium (UTEP) and not available for examination. There is a possibility that it is mis-identified. Compared to A. parviflora, below, the evidence for presence of A. glauca is a little thin.

Pale Goat-Chicory was first described as Troximon glaucum by Pursh (1816) in his North American Flora. Pursh states that he saw the plant as a dried specimen and live in a garden. However, Pursh does not tell us whose dried collection he saw or the source of the live garden specimen. Since Pursh does tell us the plant grows on the banks of the Missouri River, it could have been a Lewis & Clark or Bradley collection. However, Moulton (1999) does not list Agoseris glauca in the Lewis & Clark herbarium. Thus we are left with probalility that our plant was originally a Bradley collection.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 631, Agoseris glauca var. glauca, collected at Sagehen Meadow.

 

Literature Cited:
- Dietrich, David Nathaniel Friedrich, 1847.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nothocalais cuspidata;  Notes on Agoseris parviflora;

Locations: Colorado School of Mines Survey Field.

Area List: Golden.  

Agoseris parviflora (Nutt.) D. Dietr. “Steppe Goat-Chicory”

There are seven collections in Golden s.l. ranging from Apex Park and South Table Mountain to Mount Galbraith. Around Golden, it is typically found flowering in May and early June. The author's collections are in Apex and Mount Galbraith Parks. Several historic collections were made at the “ … base of Lookout Mountain … ” or “ … on slope[s] leading to Lookout Mountain.” Those locations are probably in what we now call the Survey Field.

The Agoseris are often confused with Prairie False Dandelion – Nothocalais cuspidata – to which they are very closely related and with the true dandelions – Taraxacum species.

Steppe Goat-Chicory was first described as Troximon parviflora by Thomas Nuttall (1841) from a collection he made “… on the plains of the Platte to the Rocky Mountains …” It was Dietrich (1847) who placed this plant and the predecessor into Rafinesque's Agoseris.

Not everyone agrees that A. parviflora is a species distinct from A. glauca. As recently as 2012, some Colorado authors were placing A. parviflora as a variety of A. glauca, e.g., A. glauca var. laciniata (D. C. Eaton) Smiley in Weber & Wittman (2012).

Full Size Image
Habitat of Coll. No. 1101, Agoseris parviflora
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1101, Agoseris parviflora

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.
- Zeise, Larry Steven, 1976.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ambrosia artemisiifolia;

Area List: Golden.  

Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. “Annual Ragweed”

There is a sole collection of “Annual Ragweed” — Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. — from South Table Mountain, and a report from North Table Mountain (Zeise, 1976). More commonly collected in the intensely collected sites of Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms, it looks enough like other weedy Ambrosias and Artemisias that it could be easily overlooked. In Colorado, found generally along the Front Range and out on the eastern plains.

First described by Linnaeus (1753, v. 2, p. 988) who described the habitat as Virginia and Pennsylvania. Weber & Wittmann (2012) state that it is an alien, whereas other sources such as Ackerfield (2015), Flora of North America, etc., accept it as native to Colorado.

 

Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustus Pyramus, 1836.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ambrosia psilostachya;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1763, Ambrosia psilostachya

Area List: Golden.  

Ambrosia psilostachya DC. “Western Ragweed”

A very common perennial herb, “Western Ragweed” — Ambrosia psilostachya DC. — has been found in nearly every corner of open space in Golden s.l. Also found along the Front Range and out on the eastern plains, with a few collections in the valleys of southern Colorado.

Described by DeCandolle (1836) from collections made in Mexico.

 

Literature Cited:
- Zeise, Larry Steven, 1976.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ambrosia tomentosa;

Area List: Golden.  

Ambrosia tomentosa Nutt. “Ragweed”

This plant is known only from a published report on North Table Mountain (Zeise, 1976). There are eight collections of the plant scattered around Golden s.l., so it is possible it can be found here.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ambrosia trifida;

Area List: Golden.  

Ambrosia trifida L. “Giant Ragweed”

There are two collections of “Giant Ragweed” — Ambrosia trifida L. — in Golden s.l., one from Heritage Square, and the other from South Table Mountain. There is also a report from North Table Mountain. Giant Ragweed is common along the Front Range and in the interior valleys of Colorado.

The name was applied by Linnaeus (1753, v. 2, p. 987) to specimens from Virginia and Canada.

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds., 1993+.
- POWO, 2022.
- USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, 2021.
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Anaphalis margaritacea;

Locations: Apex Park - Northern Parcel. North Table Mountain.

Area List: Golden.  

Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Bentham & Hooker “Western Pearly Everlasting”

There are two collections of “Western Pearly Everlasting” — Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Bentham & Hooker — in Golden s.l., one from North Table Mountain, and one from Apex Park. Other collections in Jefferson County were made a little higher in the foothills, e.g., Conifer and Evergreen, and there are only four such collections. Collections in Colorado are distributed from the Front Range west into the mountain ranges from the Park Range in the north to the San Juans in the south.

There is a certain dissonance in the literature regarding the nativity of A. margaritacea. Neither of our current Colorado floras (Ackerfield, 2015, and Weber & Wittmann, 2012) make a statement, which implies the taxon is native to Colorado. Flora of North America and USDA Plants accept nativity to North America, including Colorado. Plants of the World (Kew), on the other hand, states that the native range is Indian Subcontinent to Russian Far East and Japan, and that taxon is introduced to North America and northern Europe.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2657, Anaphalis margaritacea

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Antennaria parvifolia;
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1128, Antennaria parvifolia
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1909, Antennaria parvifolia

Area List: Golden.  

Antennaria parvifolia Nutt. “Small-Leaf Pussytoes”

Small-Leaf Pussytoes — Antennaria parvifolia — is common in rocky meadows and rocky slopes. Generally found in more mesic habitats, such as around trees or shrubs or north-facing slopes, in Golden s.l. it has been collected in Apex Park, the Survey Field, and North and South Table Mountains. A. parvifolia was first collected by Thomas Nuttall on his 1834 trip across the continent by way of the Oregon Trail.

Antennaria parvifolia is widespread throughout the western United States and Canad. It is polyploid complex with both sexual (dioecious) and asexual (gynoecious) populations. It is probably descended from hybridization of multiple Antennaria. The epithet parvifolia has been rendered as "parviflora" in some floras.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Antennaria rosea;

Area List: Golden.  

Antennaria rosea Greene “Rosy Pussytoes”

One collection from Lookout Mountain, and one report from North Table Mountain. More common at slightly higher elevations in the Front Range. Found mostly in the mountains of Colorado.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Arnica cordifolia;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2530, Arnica cordifolia

Area List: Golden.  

Arnica cordifolia Hook. “Heart-Leaf Leopardbane”

Two collections from Lookout Mountain. Interior of the Front Range of Jefferson County. More generally in the mountains of Colorado.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Arnica fulgens;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1371, Arnica fulgens
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1119, Arnica fulgens

Area List: Golden.  

Arnica fulgens Pursh “Shining Leopardbane”

Arnica fulgens Pursh is known by many common names, such as “Foothills Arnica,” “Hillside Arnica,” “Orange Arnica,” and my personal favorite “Shining Leopardbane” In Golden s.l., A. fulgens has been found on North Table Mountain, and on Tin Cup Ridge. The distribution in Jefferson County is spotty, sometimes on the highest plains, and sometimes up in the foothills.

Unfortunately, the Leopardbane name is better reserved for things in the genus Doronicum which was at one time thought to be closely related to Arnica but recent work shows the two are distantly related.

A. fulgens was first described by Pursh (1814) from an unattributed collection on the banks of the Missouri River.

Full Size Image
Woolly hairs in axils of basal leaves of Coll. No. 2038, Arnica fulgens

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Artemisia campestris;

Locations: Apex Gulch. Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space Park.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1767, Artemisia campestris

Area List: Golden.  

Artemisia campestris L. “Field Sagewort”

There are two Artemisias that are similar appearing, and closely-related by evolution. They are A. campestris or “Field Sagewort” and A. dracunculus with common names of “Tarragon,” and “Dragon Wort” Close inspection will show that A. campestris leaves are divided and usually villous on the abaxial side, whereas the leaves of A. dracunculus are entire and usually glabrous.

There are two collections and one report of “Field Sagewort” — Artemisia campestris L. — in Golden s.l., the collections from Apex Gulch and a generic location of Golden, while the report is from North Table Mountain. Jefferson County collections are scattered along the Front Range, including the intensely collected locations of Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms. The author has also collected it at Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space Park. For Colorado, the taxon is distributed along the Front Range and interior mountains, with a few collections on the eastern plains.

At the simplest level, A. campestris L. was published describing plants found in sunny, dry fields of Europe. When we get to infraspecific taxa, and plants native to Colorado, things get complicated in a hurry. While there is a lot variation within the species, and multiple ways the species has been divided, the infraspecific taxa that may be found in Golden s.l. are variety caudata and variety pacifica.

Full Size Image
Inflorescence of Coll. No. 1767, Artemisia campestris

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Artemisia dracunculus L.;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1754, Artemisia dracunculus
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1754, Artemisia dracunculus

Area List: Golden.  

Artemisia dracunculus L. “Tarragon, Dragon Wort”

“Tarragon,” or “Dragon Wort” — Artemisia dracunculus L. — is more common than Field Sagewort, in the sense that there are more collections in Golden s.l. Collections have been made on North and South Table Mountains, at North Washington Open Space, and in Apex Park. Collections in Jefferson County are mostly along the Front Range. There are collections throughout Colorado.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Artemisia filifolia;

Area List: Golden.  

Artemisia filifolia Torrey “Sand Sage, Old-Man Sagebrush”

There is but one report (Zeise, 1976) and no collections of Artemisia filifolia Torrey in Golden s.l.. Indeed, there are no collections in Jefferson County. Consequently, we would have to conclude that the presence of the taxon here is doubtful.

 

Literature Cited:
- Moulton, Gary E., 1999.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.
- Willdenow, Carl L., 1797-1830.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Artemisia frigida;

Area List: Golden.  

Artemisia frigida Willd. “Prairie Sagewort”

Very common throughout Golden s.l., “Prairie Sagewort” — Artemisia frigida Willd. — has been collected in every Golden open space. Similarly, the sagewort has been collected throughout Colorado, though not as commonly on the eastern plains as one might think given the common name of “Prairie Sagewort.”

Artemisia frigida was described by Carl Willdenow (1803) in the 4th edition of Linnaeus Species Plantarum. The location given was a region in southeast Siberia. Perhaps the first collection in North America was that of Lewis & Clark, made along the Missouri River in September and October, 1804 (Pursh, 1814, v. 2, p. 521; Moulton, 1999)

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1067, Artemisia frigida
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1067, Artemisia frigida

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds., 1993+.
- Schulz, Leila M., 2006.
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Artemisia ludoviciana;

Area List: Golden.  

Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. “Silver Wormwood”

Silver Wormwood — Artemisia ludoviciana — is found throughout Golden s.l.. It is adventive in gardens as well. The specific epithet “ludoviciana” is a Latinization of “Louisiana.” It was first collected on the Missouri River and named by Thomas Nuttall in his report of his 1811 trip up to Fort Mandan.

Six varieties are treated in FNANM (Shulz, 2006), four of which are recognized to occur in Colorado by Ackerfield (2015), whereas Weber & Wittmann (2012) recognize just two subspecies while noting, “ … the microraces are legion and impossible to place into pigeonholes …”

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1281, Artemisia ludoviciana

 

Literature Cited:
- Baldwin, Bruce G., and Kenneth R. Wood, 2016.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Bahia dissecta;

Area List: Golden.  

Bahia dissecta (A. Gray) Britton “Ragleaf Bahia”

There is only one collection of “Ragleaf Bahia” — Bahia dissecta (A. Gray) Britton — in Golden s.l., although the number of collections in Jefferson County suggest the plant might be more common than the single collection would suggest. There are numerous collections in Colorado, primarily along the Front Range and in the southern mountains.

Known variously as Bahia dissecta (A. Gray) Britton and Amauriopsis dissecta (A. Gray) Rydberg in current floras and data bases, recent phylogenetic work by Baldwin & Wood (2016) suggest that Hymenothrix dissecta (A. Gray) B. G. Baldwin would be a better name in the future.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1834a.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1816.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Balsamorhiza sagittata;
• Tin Cup Ridge (social trail):   at Coll. 1109;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2252, 30 Apr 2020;
• Glossary:  disjunct;

Area List: Golden.  

Balsamorhiza sagittata (Pursh) Nutt. “Arrow-Leaf Balsam Root”

Balsamorhiza sagittata (Pursh) Nutt. — “Arrow-Leaf Balsam Root” — is a Colorado native, but probably not to Golden s.l.. It has been found in several small colonies on Tin Cup Ridge, above the Rooney Road sports complex. Common in the mountains of the western slope of Colorado, such as Grand Mesa, it is found throughout the western United States to the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada in California. The most common explanation of its presence in Golden is that seeds were planted on Tin Cup Ridge. However, there is no evidence except that it is a disjunct population.

The plant was first collected by the Lewis & Clark expedition on the Columbia River, April 14, 1806, and near Lewis & Clark Pass, Montana, on July 7, 1806. Only the April 14, 1806 collection remains. Pursh (1814) described it as Buphthalmum sagittatum from the Lewis & Clark collection. Nuttall (1834a) saw it in the collections returned by Nathaniel Wyeth, and again when he crossed the country with the next Wyeth expedition (Nuttall, 1840). From this last expedition, Nuttall applied Hooker's Balsamorhiza to the plant, giving us our modern name.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2252, Balsamorhiza sagittata
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1109, Balsamorhiza sagittata
Full Size Image
Voucher of Coll. No. 2252, Balsanorhiza sagittata

 

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Brickellia californica;
• Climbing Access Trail:   near s. end;
• State Road 518:   at Mora River;
• US Interstate 25:   xing Mora River.;
Full Size ImageBrickellia califorica as seen below the cliffs of North Table Mountain.

Area List: Golden.  

Brickellia californica (Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray “California Brickelbush”

California Brickellbush — Brickellia californica — is found on cliffs or in rocky areas of North and South Table Mountains. It is also known to be adventive in Golden gardens. It is also typically collected in Clear Creek Canyon, and there is an Alice Eastwood collection from Morrison. More broadly, California Brickellbush is distributed throughout the Southwest. The author has collected it in Mojave National Preserve, San Bernardino County, California.

The species was described from a collection made by Agustus Fendler in August 1847 and described by Gray (1849) in his Plantae Fendleriana. The location of the collection was “… Rocky hill-side on the Mora River, and eight miles eastward, in bottom land … ” The location was likely on the Santa Fe trail, where it crosses the Mora River, and near present-day Watrous on US Interstate 25.

 

Literature Cited:
- Anonymous, 1971.
- Linne, Carl von, and Lars Salvius, 1763.
- Schilling, Edward, Randall W. Scott, and Jose L. Panero, 2015.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Brickellia eupatorioides;

Area List: Golden.  

Brickellia eupatorioides (L.) Shinners “False Boneset”

Fairly common in Golden s.l. and nearby places, especially the well-studied Rocky Flats and Chatfield. I have found it in open fields, and as a warm season Compositae. It has a much different appearance when compared to the two other Brickellia found in Golden s.l.: B. californica and B. grandiflora.

This taxon was formerly Kuhnia eupatorioides L., named by Linneaus (1763) from a collection made in Pensylvania by Adam Kuhn. Placement of this plant in Brickellia is attributed to Shinners (Anonymous, 1971). Although the actual text is in unsigned “Notes” in the issue of SIDA containing a tribute to Shinners on his death. More recently, phylogenetic work supports the existence of Kuhnia as an infrageneric group within Brickellia (Schilling, et al., 2015).

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1553, Brickellia eupatorioides

 

Literature Cited:
- Brunquist, E. H., 1966.
- Hooker, Sir William Jackson, 1829-1840.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Brickellia grandiflora;

Area List: Golden.  

Brickellia grandiflora (Hook.) Nutt. “Tasselflower Brickellbush”

There is one collection of Brickellia grandiflora — Tasselflower Brickellbush — in Golden s.l., made by E. H. Brunquist on the south bank of Apex Creek. Otherwise, collections in Jefferson County are more in the foothills to the southwest, such as Foxton and Buffalo Creek.

The taxon was first described Eupatorium? grandiflorum by Hooker (1840) from a collection by Douglas between branches of Lewis and Clarke's River. It is not clear the river referred to by Hooker. I doubt that it is the current Lewis & Clark River in Oregon. Nuttall (1841), however, recognized that the plant should be placed in the Brickellia in his report about his trip across the continent on the Oregon Trail.

Full Size Image
Flower head of Coll. No. 2743, Brickellia grandiflora.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Cirsium ochrocentrum;

Area List: Golden.  

Cirsium ochrocentrum A. Gray “Yellowspine Thistle”

There is one old collection of “Yellowspine Thistle” — Cirsium ochrocentrum A. Gray — made along the railroad tracks more than 100 years ago. There is one other collection by E. H. Brunquist made in 1960 at the Magic Mountain archeological dig. One voucher is determined C. ochrocentrum and the other C. undulatum. Generally, I think there are more C. undulatum than C. ochrocentrum.

They can be distinguished by examining how the middle and upper leaves attach to the stem. Those of C. ochrocentrum are decurrent on the stem for more than 1 cm., whereas those of C. undulatum are sessile and clasping, or decurrent for less than 1 cm.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.
- Sprengel, Curt Polycarp Joachim, 1826.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Cirsium arvense;  Notes on Cirsium undulatum;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2377, 23 Jun 2020;

Area List: Golden.  

Cirsium undulatum (Nutt.) Spreng. “Wavy Leaved Thistle”

There are three true thistles, i.e., Cirsium spp., that are reported for Golden.

C. undulatum (Nutt.) Spreng. the “Wavy Leaved Thistle” is the native thistle most-often seen around Golden. It is short, 1-2 feet, as thistles go, and usually has only one or two flower heads at the top of a single stem.

The plant was first seen by Thomas Nuttall on Lake Huron in 1810. He would find it again later in the Upper Louisiana Territory, presumably somewhere along the Missouri River. Nuttall published his findings in his Genera of North America Plants in 1818 as Carduus undulatus Nutt. placing it in section Cnicus. Sprengel (1826) would revise the genus to Cirsium in Systema vegetabilium, the 16th edition of Linneaus' Species Plantarum.

In Golden, C. undulatum has been collected by me in the Colorado School of Mines Survey Field. Loraine Yeatts collected it on South Table Mountain, and Ernest H. Brunquist at Heritage Square. Additionally, it has been observed on Dakota Ridge, North Table Mountain, and at the North Washington Open Space.

The other native true thistle that may be found in Golden is C. ochrocentrum A. Gray “Yellowspine Thistle.” There is one collection determined C. ochrocentrum, that of Edmund Cross made 20 Jul 1913 (RM313305) along the railroad tracks. However, an apparent duplicate of that collection (RM313306) is determined C. undulatum.

At the opposite end of the native/non-native spectrum, is the noxious weed Cirsium arvense, “Canada thistle” that is discussed at length below.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2377, Cirsium undulatum with bumblebee.
Full Size Image
Big bumblebee on Cirsium undulatum
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2377, Cirsium undulatum in progress.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1821.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Coreopsis tinctoria;

Area List: Golden.  

Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. “Golden Tickseed”

Golden Tickseed — Coreopsis tinctoria — has been collected in several places on South Table Mountain, but is not reported from other places in Golden s.l..

The plant was collected by Thomas Nuttall in 1819 who found it in the “… Arkansa territory to the banks of the Red River …” in a list of new species of plants recently introduced into the gardens of Philadelphia. Nuttall (1821) notes,

As an ornamental plant, of easy culture and uncommon brilliance, it promises to become the favorite of every garden where it is introduced.
Ackerfield (2015) notes that western slope plants are escaped from cultivation. Since this plant is only found in a restricted area of Golden s.l., it may also be garden escapee here rather than a native.

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Enke, Neela, 2009.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1834a.
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Crepis occidentalis;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1894, 28 May 2018;

Area List: Golden.  

Crepis occidentalis Nutt. “Largeflower Hawksbeard”

Around Golden s.l., “Largeflower Hawksbeard” has been collected on North and South Table Mountains, and in the Survey Field, as well as "dry hills" as described by a collection by Ellsworth Bethel and Ira Clokey. I think it is one of those species that are found scattered over a wide area, but rarely more than one or two at a time.

In Jefferson County, the taxon has been found mostly at the intensely studied areas, such as Rocky Flats and Chatfield. More broadly, it is found from the Front Range west through Colorado, a distribution that is continued throughout the western states.

Crepis occidentalis was described by Nuttall (1834a) from plants brought to him by Nathaniel Wyeth in 1833. This whetted Nuttall's appetite for exploring Oregon Territory and Nuttall accompanied Wyeth back to the territory in 1834.

Some authors (Ackerfield, 2015) recognize three varieties of C. occidentalis while noting that the varieties intergrade, whereas others (Weber & Wittmann, 2012) do not recognize infraspecific varieties. My collection from the Survey Field would likely be determined variety costata if an infraspecific name were to be applied.

Weber & Wittman (2012) separate the indigenous North American Crepis s.l. into Psilochenia (Psilochaenia orth. Var.), a position for which there is some phylogenetic support (Enke, 2009).

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1894, Crepis occidentalis
Full Size Image
Flower head of Coll. No. 1894, Crepis occidentalis
There are other Crepis found in Jefferson County, such as C. atribarba, C. capillaris, and C. runcinata. However, none of those have been found in Golden, and C. occidentalis is the most common in Jefferson County.

 

Literature Cited:
- Moulton, Gary E., 1999.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Cyclachaena xanthifolia;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2423, 17 Aug 2020;

Area List: Golden.  

Cyclachaena xanthifolia (Nutt.) Fresen. “Carelessweed” or “Giant Sumpweed”

Collected at Heritage Square by H. D. Harrington and on South Table Mountain by Loraine Yeatts. Also by the author in Deadman Gulch/Kinney Run.

Collected and described by Thomas Nuttall (1818, v. 2, p. 185) from plants he found at Fort Mandan, South Dakota. There are no specimens of this plant in the Lewis & Clark herbarium (Moulton, 1999).

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2423, Cyclachaena xanthiifolia

 

Literature Cited:
- Morgan, David R., and Ronald L. Hartman, 2003.
- Torrey, John, 1857.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Dieteria bigelovii;

Locations: Sandia Mountains.

Area List: Golden.  

Dieteria bigelovii (A. Gray) D. R. Morgan & R. L. Hartman “Bigelow's Tansy Aster”

I find Bigelow's Tansy Aster — Dieteria bigelovii (A. Gray) D. R. Morgan & R. L. Hartman — to be a bit of a garden thug in Golden, CO. It came in uninvited and spreads rapidly. In the wild, it has been collected in Apex Gulch, South Table Mountain, and Tin Cup Ridge, all three sites in the southern portion of Golden s.l. Found throughout Jefferson County. Colorado collections are mostly in meadows, open slopes, and forest openings in the interior, with few collections out on the plains. First published by Gray in Torrey (1857) who cited arroyos in the Sandia mountains as habitat. The collector there is not identified. Placed in a revived Dieteria Nutt. by Morgan and Hartman (2003) split off from Machaeranthera s.l.
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2663, Dieteria bigelovii.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Dieteria canescens;

Area List: Golden.  

Dieteria canescens (Pursh) Nutt. “Hoary Tansyaster”

Known from Golden s.l. from three collections over a long period of time, and at locations known only as “Golden,” without a more precise georeference.

Published by Pursh (1814) as Aster canescens having seen a dried specimen of unknown provenance. The genus name Dieteria was published by Nuttall (1840). Nuttall refers to a Missouri River location which would imply that he saw it in 1811. It is also possible that Pursh saw a Bradbury specimen.

Some Colorado authors (Weber & Wittmann, 2012) place this in Machaeranthera.

 

Literature Cited:
- Ventenat, Etienne P., Jacques M. Cels, and Henri J. Redoute, 1801.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Dyssodia papposa;
Full Size ImageInflorescence of Coll. No. 1540, Dyssodia papposa

Area List: Golden.  

Dyssodia papposa (Vent.) Hitchc. “Fetid Marigold”

Collected in disturbed places on North and South Table Mountains. Found along the Front Range in Jefferson County, plus one collection from Buffalo Creek. Scattered along the Front Range of Colorado, out on the eastern plains, and along the southern border.

Grown in the private botanical garden of Jacques Cels in France from seeds collected in Illinois by A. Michaux, and described by Etienne Ventenat (1801) as Tagetes papposa in an illustrated book of new plants grown in the garden.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1540, Dyssodia papposa

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• How did rubber rabbitbrush get that long scientific name?:  Introduction;

Locations: North Washington Open Space.

Area List: Golden.  

Ericameria nauseosa (Pall. ex Pursh) G.L.Nesom & G.I.Baird var. graveolens (Nutt.) Reveal & Schuyler

There are two varieties of “rabbitbrush” — Ericameria nauseosa (Pall. ex Pursh) G.L.Nesom & G.I.Baird — found in Golden. The most common is variety graveolens, a four-to-five foot tall shrub covered with bright yellow flowers in late summer and early fall. One of the most common shrubs in Golden s.l. and frequently adventive in neighborhood gardens, it is found in all the open spaces.

Its name, in itself, is a history lesson. Typically, we apply the common name “Rubber Rabbitbrush” or “Pungent Rabbitbrush” to this shrub. However, a better common name might be “Goldy Locks” because the first name applied to it was Chrysocoma which literally translates to Goldy Locks, or more precisely Golden Tuft-of-Hair. I have a very long page about “How did rubber rabbitbrush get that long scientific name?”

The plant was first collected by Lewis & Clark in 1804 at the Big Bend of the Missouri. However, Pursh (1814) applied a name to it that was illegitimate, i.e., it had been applied earlier to a different plant. Thomas Nuttall also collected the plant in 1811 on the banks of the Missouri River in Montana. His (1818) application of Chrysocoma graveolens was valid, and became the basionyn for the plant.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2229, Ericameria nauseosa var. graveolens

 

Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustus Pyramus, 1836.
- Nesom, Guy L., and Gary I. Baird, 1993.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ericameria nauseosa nauseosa;

Area List: Golden.  

Ericameria nauseosa (Pall. ex Pursh) G. I. Nesom & G. I. Baird var. nauseosa. “Rubber Rabbitbush”

The other “Rabbitbrush” found in Golden is variety nauseosa, a much smaller shrub that variety graveolens, about a foot high, and scattered on dry slopes of South Table Mountain, Eagle Ridge, and Kinney Run.

In Jefferson County, this variety has also been collected at two other intensely-collected locations: Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms, and at the Butterfly Pavilion.

The online herbaria (SEINet) records are a bit of a mess because the reorganization of Chrysothamnus and Ericameria has not been universally accepted. It is necessary to look for the plants under both names to complete a search. I think the case of Nesom & Baird (1993) to move the nauseosi to Ericameria is strong, and has been known for a long time; see DeCandolle (1836).

Because of the data problem, an accurate map of Colorado locations is near impossible. Regardless, the variety appears to be scattered throughout Colorado and adjacent states.

The plant was first collected by Lewis & Clark in 1804 on the Missouri River, though no more specific place was recorded. The name was applied by Pursh (1814) from a manuscript by Peter Simon Pallas. However, we don’t know how or where Pallas might have seen a specimen.

Full Size Image
Habitat of Coll. No. 2440, Ericameria nauseosa var. nauseosa
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2440, Ericameria nauseosa var. nauseosa

 

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Erigeron compositus;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1901, Erigeron compositus

Area List: Golden.  

Erigeron compositus Pursh “Cutleaf Daisy”

There are two collections of “Cutleaf Daisy” — Erigeron compositus Pursh ” made on the higher edges of Golden s.l. of Lookout Mountain. This is consistent with other collections made in Jefferson County, and throughout Colorado, with a few collections made on the higher plains, such as the Palmer Divide, but generally in the foothills and higher mountain ranges. The author's collections of this daisy were made at the Buffalo Creek Recreation Area and Hankins Gulch (Goose Creek).

The species was described by Pursh (1814) from Lewis & Clark collections on the Kooskoosky (Clearwater) River.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Erigeron flagellaris;  Erigeron tracyi;  Notes on Erigeron divergens;

Area List: Golden.  

Erigeron divergens Torr. & A. Gray “Spreading Fleabane”

There are three similar and closely related Erigeron in Golden s.l.: E. divergens, E. flagellaris, and E. tracyi.

E. flagellaris is the easiest to separate by noting the appressed hairs on the upper parts of the peduncles, and the presence of long, leafy stoloniferous branches. E. divergens has hairs spreading downward, lacks the stoloniferous branches, and often has numerous flower heads on the peduncles. E. tracyi is intermediate between the two others, with hairs spreading in all directions, stoloniferous branches that may be somewhat reduced, and flowers in single heads. Indeed, there is some thought that E. tracyi is a hybrid between the other two.

“Spreading Fleabane” (Erigeron divergens Torr. & A. Gray) is commonly collected in Golden s.l., on North and South Table Mountains, North Washington Open Space, Heritage Square, &c. Around Jefferson County, it is distributed mostly along the westen edge of the plains with a few collection in the foothills. Common around Colorado up to about 10,000 feet elevation.

Thomas Nuttall (1840) first recognized the species as a unique entity but unfortunately applied a name (E. divaricatum) that was previously used (Michaux, 1803) and therefore not available. Torrey & Gray (1841) published E. divergens crediting Nuttall with a collection locality and with recognizing the distinct taxon.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2092, Erigeron divergens

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Erigeron divergens;  Notes on Erigeron flagellaris;

Locations: Santa Fe River.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1116, Erigeron flagellaris

Area List: Golden.  

Erigeron flagellaris A. Gray “Trailing Fleabane”

There are a few scattered collections of “Trailing Fleabane” — Erigeron flagellaris A. Gray — in Golden s.l. I have collected it at Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space, though not in Golden. There are a few collections at the highest elevations of the plains of Jefferson County, and more in the foothills. Distribution in Colorado is similar, from 5,000 feet up to 11,800 feet.

Trailing fleabane was first described by Asa Gray (1849) from a collection by Agustus Fendler made in 1847 along Santa Fe River.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1829, Erigeron flagellaris

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Erigeron pumilis, Nuttall, 1818;

Area List: Golden.  

Erigeron pumilus Nutt. “Shaggy Fleabane”

Found in the southern part of Golden s.l., on South Table Mountain, and in Eagle Ridge / Heritage Road area. First described by Thomas Nuttall (1818) from his collection on the plains of the Missouri, although previously invalidly published by Pursh (1814, 2, suppl. 742) as E hirsutum from Bradbury's herbarium. Also collected at Rocky Flats and Red Rocks Park, although found throughout Colorado except at higher elevations.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Erigeron strigosus;

Area List: Golden.  

Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd. “Prairie Fleabane”

Only one collection of “Prairie Fleabane” “ — Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd. &mdash: near Golden s.l. that was made near 44th and McIntyre Streets. The only other collection in Jefferson County was made at Rocky Flats. Known in Colorado mostly from along the Front Range, with just two collections on the west slope.

 

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Erigeron divergens;  Notes on Erigeron tracyi;
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1337, an Erigeron, maybe E. tracyi

Area List: Golden.  

Erigeron tracyi Greene “Running Fleabane”

Of the three related Erigeron, Erigeron tracyi Greene — “Running Fleabane” — is by far the most common, having been collected in all the Golden s.l. open spaces. In Jefferson County, the fleabane has been collected mostly along the base of the Front Range. Common on the eastern slope of Colorado, mostly along the Front Range, with scattered occurences on the southern plains, and the southern western slope.

Gray (1849) in working through the collections of Fendler first recognized it as a distinct taxonomic entity, though he applied an unavailable name. Greene (1902) published two names for the same taxon: E. commixtus and E. tracyi, both collected by S, M. Tracy and F. S. Earle, two days apart in April, 1902. Since the date of publication was the same, it would seem that the former would have priority by date of collection, though perhaps we use the latter because it memorializes the collector.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1337, Erigeron tracyi

 

Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1905.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Erigeron vetensis;

Locations: North La Veta Pass.

Area List: Golden.  

Erigeron vetensis Rydb. “Early Bluetop Fleabane”

Collected on and at the base of Lookout Mountain. Known from highest plains and foothills in northern Jefferson County, with a couple of collections in the lower montane of southwestern part of the county. Known generally from the Front Ranges, San Juan Mountains and intervening ranges of Colorado.

The name was published by Rydberg (1905) from a collection near La Veta Pass.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1421, Erigeron vetensis

 

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Gaillardia aristata;

Locations: Lewis and Clark Pass.

Area List: Golden.  

Gaillardia aristata Pursh “Blanketflower”

This very common “Blanketflower” — Gaillardia aristata Pursh — is found in nearly every open space of Golden s.l. and throughout Jefferson County, though not at Chatfield Farms. Common around Colorado though with some interesting exceptions, e.g., common on the east slopes of the Sangre de Cristo Range, but not found on the west slopes.

Originally published as Galardia aristata by Pursh (1814) from a Lewis & Clark collection made near Lewis & Clark Pass on 7 July 1806.

Full Size Image
Gaillardia aristata on Dakota Ridge.
Full Size Image
Flowerhead of Coll. No. 1454, Gaillardia aristata

 

Literature Cited:
- Dunal, Felix, 1819.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Grindelia squarrosa;

Area List: Golden.  

Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal “Curlycup Gumweed”

“Curlycup Gumweed” — “ Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal — is common in Golden s.l. open spaces and parks. All of the collections in Jefferson County are north of Chatfield Farms, but equally distributed between the plains and the foothills. The species is widespread across Colorado.

The first recorded collection was by Lewis & Clark in 1804 in Dakota County, Nebraska. Pursh (1814) described it as Donia squarrosa and Dunal (1819) placed it in Grindelia.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Grindelia subalpina;

Area List: Golden.  

Grindelia subalpina Greene “Subalpine Gumweed”

There is only one collection of “Subalpine Gumweed” — Grindelia subalpina Greene — in Golden s.l., made on South Table Mountain. It is mostly restricted to the Front Range of northern Colorado and just slightly onto the highest plains.

Grindelia subalpina is very similar to the former (G. squarrosa) and the two may be confused for each other. The differences are quite subtle and mostly relate to the shape of the leaf margin teeth. It might be productive to examine vouchers of both species in the herbarium.

The species was separated from G. squarrosa by Greene (1898) for its petiolate and sharply serrate leaves, and other differences no longer recognized.

 

Literature Cited:
- Britton, Nathaniel Lord, and H. H. Rusby, 1887.
- Lagasca y Segura, Mariano, 1816.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Gutierrezia sarothrae;

Area List: Golden.  

Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh) Britton & Rusby “Broom Snakeweed”

“Broom Snakeweed,” sometimes also called “Matchweed” — Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh) Britton & Rusby — is quite common in Golden s.l. and has been collected or observed in all of our open spaces. A small, unassuming shrub, it may often be overlooked, in part because it does not bloom until August or September.

Mostly collected just along the high plains in Jefferson County, it is found in almost every county of Colorado. It is pretty much ubiquitous across the North American Cordillera from central Kansas west to the eastern Sierra Nevada of California and south into Baja California.

The plant was first described as Solidago sarothrae by Frederich Pursh (1814) from collections made by the Lewis & Clark expedition (1804) along the Big Bend of the Missouri River. Lagasca (1816) proposed the genus name Gutierrezia for a Mexican plant that will ultimately become the genus name for our plant. Meanwhile, Nuttall (1818) proposed an entirely different specific epithet for the plant, Brachyris Euthamiae. Torrey & Gray (1838-1843) recognized that the plant belonged in Gutierrezia though they applied Nuttall's specific name Euthamiae to it. It was quite some time later that Britton & Rusby (1887) put it all together correctly and published the current name, Gutierrezia sarothrae.

Full Size Image
Habitat of Coll. No. 1289, Gutierrezia sarothrae
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1289, Gutierrezia sarothrae

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Helianthus annuus;

Area List: Golden.  

Helianthus annuus L. “Common Sunflower”

There are a few collections of “Common Sunflower” — Helianthus annuus L. — around Golden s.l., primarily at Heritage Square and North and South Table Mountains. Jefferson County collections are mainly on the higher plains up to the Front Range. Distributed broadly throughout Colorado except the highest mountains.

Various sources disagree on the nativity of H. annuus. USDA Plants shows it native to the entire United States. Plants of the World shows it native to westernmost North and Central America, particularly Arizona, California, and Nevada. Linnaeus (1753), who first described the plant, noted that it was from Peru and Mexico. The oldest known collection from Colorado was made in 1871 along the Platte River near Denver (COLO93773). Since neither James (1820), nor Fremont (1840s), nor Parry (1861-1862), collected the plant in Colorado, it seems unlikely that it is native. One thing we can be fairly certain of, the plant in its current form with very large flower heads is the result of plant breeding, and not the native condition.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Helianthus nuttallii;

Area List: Golden.  

Helianthus nuttallii Torr. & A. Gray “Nuttall's Sunflower”

Helianthus nuttallii Torr. & A. Gray “Nuttall's Sunflower” may be present in Golden s.l. There is a Ira W. Clokey collection (#3947, 5 Sep 1920) clearly labeled "Golden" and an Alice Eastwood collection (#92, 3 Sep 1910) that may be from Golden. However, it has been at least 100 years since it was last collected. Around Colorado, there are collections scattered in the lower elevations.

Thomas Nuttall collected the type on the “plains of the Lewis River” – the Columbia River – and intended to give it the name of Helianthus californicus. However, the name was unavailable having been previously used by DeCandolle (1836) for a collection in California by David Douglas. Torrey & Gray (1842) applied the name H. nuttallii giving credit to Nuttall for the collection. An image of the type may be available at JSTOR (https://plants.jstor.org/stable/viewer/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.ph00014119). However, it is securely locked away behind a paywall.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Helianthus pumilus;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1210, Helianthus pumilis

Area List: Golden.  

Helianthus pumilus Nutt. “Little Sunflower”

Common around Golden s.l. and along the Front Range in Jefferson County and Colorado generally On a broader scale it is known from the Front Range of Colorado and Wyoming, to about 43° North, and then very sparingly into Montana and Saskatchewan.

Described by Nuttall (1840) from plant he collected on his trip across the continent by the Oregon Trail.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1426, Helianthus pumilis

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1848, publication details;  Notes on Heliomeris multiflora;

Area List: Golden.  

Heliomeris multiflora Nutt. “Showy Golden Eye”

Very few collections, two of the three from more than 100 years ago. Most recently at Apex Gulch by E. H. Brunquist (#131, 4 Aug 1960) as part of Peabody Museum archeological dig.

Collected at Rocky Flats and Chatfield. Scattered throughout central and western Colorado. Primarily a Rocky Mountain species, and across southern Nevada to eastern California, e.g., the author has collected it at Magruder Mountain, Esmeralda County, Nevada.

Described by Nuttall (1848) from a collection by William Gambel in the mountains of Upper California.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Heterotheca foliosa;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1258, Heterotheca foliosa

Area List: Golden.  

Heterotheca foliosa (Nutt.) Shinners “Hairy False Goldenaster”

Collected on South Table Mountain by Loraine Yeatts. and at Magic Mountain by E. H. Brunquist. Otherwise scattered around Jefferson County and up into the foothills. Central Cordillera from the Mexico border to Canada.

Described by Nuttall (1841) from plants seen on the Rocky Mountain plains, near the banks of the Platte. Often treated as a variety of H. villosa.

Full Size Image
Inflorescence of Coll. No. 2177, Heterotheca foliosa

 

Literature Cited:
- Moulton, Gary E., 1999.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1813.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Heterotheca villosa;

Area List: Golden.  

Heterotheca villosa (Pursh) Shinners “Hairy False Goldenaster”

One of the more common subshrubs in Golden s.l., “Hairy False Goldenaster” — Heterotheca villosa (Pursh) Shinners — has been found in every open space. It is also adventive in Golden gardens. Pretty ubiquitous in Jefferson County, though not often collected in the southwest section of the county. Similarly ubiquitous throughout Colorado.

The plant is not found in the Lewis & Clark herbarium (Moulton, 1999). Nuttall (1813) published the plant as Sideranthus integrifolius. However, this name is considered nomen nudum because there was no description. The first validly published name was by Pursh (1814) as Amellus villosus who stated the plant was found on the Missouri, but did not cite a collector. It probably was Nuttall's collection that Pursh described, but since we do not know for sure it could have been a Bradbury collection.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1209, Heterotheca villosa
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1209, Heterotheca villosa

 

Literature Cited:
- Osterhout, George E., 1918.
- Turner, Billie L., 1956.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Thelesperma megapotamicum;  Notes on Hymenopappus filifolius Hook. var. polycephalus;
• US Highway 287:   at Dale Creek;   in Livermore;

Locations: Dale Creek. Livermore.

Area List: Golden.  

Hymenopappus filifolius Hook. var. polycephalus (Osterh.) B.L. Turner "Many-Headed Fine-Leaved Wooly-White"

A fairly common perennial herb, “Many-Headed Fine-Leaved Wooly-White” — Hymenopappus filifolius Hook. var. polycephalus (Osterh.) B.L. Turner — has been collected in nearly all Golden s.l. open spaces, and very likely will be found in any others. It is commonly confused with Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze “Hopi Tea Greenthread” though an examination of the involucre will quickly distinguish between the two.

Hymenopappus polycephalus was originally described by George Osterhout from specimens he collected from Livermore, Larimer County, and northward to Dale Creek, and on into Wyoming. Turner (1956) reduced polycephalus to a variety of Hymenopappus filifolius Hook. Turner also noted that polycephalus is a tetraploid with n = 34, whereas the most closely linked taxa var. cinereus and H. tenuifolius are diploids whose natural range may once have overlapped. Thus, var. polycephalus may be a hybrid between the two.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1663, Hymenopappus filifolius var. polycephalus

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Liatris punctata;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1736, Liatris punctata
Full Size ImageInflorescence of Coll. No. 1264, Liatris punctata

Area List: Golden.  

Liatris punctata Hook. “Dotted Blazing Star”

“Dotted Blazing Star” — Liatris punctata Hook. — is another ubiquitous prairie plant, found in all of Golden s.l. open spaces. Similarly, it has been found throughtout Jefferson County. Its Colorado distribution is from the plains up into the foothills.

The plant was described by Sir William Jackson Hooker (1833) in his Botany of the Northern Parts of British America. The description is drawn from collections by Drummond in Saskatchawan and Douglas (location not identified). Hooker also refers to L. resinosa of Nuttall (1818), which is now treated as Liatris spicata var. resinosa and is primarily an eastern North American species. It seems odd to me that neither Lewis & Clark, nor Nuttall, nor Bradbury collected Liatris punctata along the Missouri River in North or South Dakota even though there are collections from those areas.

 

Literature Cited:
- Hooker, Sir William Jackson, 1829-1840.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Stephanomeria pauciflora;  Notes on Lygodesmia juncea;

Area List: Golden.  

Lygodesmia juncea (Pursh) D. Don ex Hooker “Rush Skeletonplant”

The presence of Lygodesmia juncea (Pursh) D. Don ex Hooker “Rush Skeletonplant” in Golden s.l.is doubtful. There is one collection on South Table Mountain, Yeatts #773, of which one voucher (COLO00106021) is determined L. juncea. A duplicate of Yeatts #773 (KHD19403) was annotated Stephanomeria pauciflora by the collector. In addition there are two observations of L. juncea on North Table Mountain. The author collected S. pauciflora on the lower east slopes of the mesa, but has not seen any L. juncea. There are a few collections scattered around Jefferson County, with concentrations at the intensely-collected sites of Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms. In Colorado, collections are scattered around the plains and foothills, with a few collections in the southern interior valleys.

The plant was first described as Prenanthes juncea Pursh (1814, v. 2, p. 498) from an unattributed dried collection. It was placed in Lygodesmia D. Don by Hooker (1840, v. 1, p. 295).

Superficially Lygodesmia juncea is very similar to Stephanomeria pauciflora. However, it turns out they are quite distinct, being separated by consistent differences in cotyledon, achene, and pollen morphology and base chromosome numbers (x = 9 in Lygodesmia; x = 8 in Stephanomeria). Most keys distinguish between the two with the morphology of the pappus with Lygodesmia having a pappus of capillary bristles and Stephanomeria a pappus of plumose bristles.

 

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Mulgedium pulchellum;

Area List: Golden.  

Mulgedium pulchellum (Pursh) G. Don in R. Sweet “Blue Lettuce”

There are two collections of “Blue Lettuce” — Mulgedium pulchellum (Pursh) G. Don in R. Sweet — in Golden s.l.. One is historic, having been made near the brickyards in 1934. The other is more recent, made on South Table Mountain in 1992. Considered to be native to North America, there are a few collections scattered around Jefferson County, and in Colorado from the higher plains into the interior valleys of the Rocky Mountains.

The plant was first described by Pursh (1814) as Sonchus pulchellus from an unattributed dried specimen. It has often been treated as a subspecies or variety of Lactuca tatarica, including by our current Colorado authors.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Agoseris parviflora;  Notes on Nothocalais cuspidata;
Full Size ImageNothocalais cuspidata on the Nightbird Gulch Trail
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1791, Nothocalais cuspidata

Area List: Golden.  

Nothocalais cuspidata (Pursh) Greene “Prairie False Dandelion”

Often mistaken for the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), the “Prairie False Dandelion” — Nothocalais cuspidata (Pursh) Greene — has been collected on North and South Table Mountains, the Survey Field, and other nearby places. That it has not been collected in some areas, like Dakota Ridge and North Washington Open Space, probably reflects its distribution pattern, widely distributed but rarely more that one or two plants in a given area. Found along the base of the foothills in Jefferson County, most dense along the base of the foothills of the Front Range, with a few collections on the eastern plains, rarely in the interior valleys.

First described by Pursh (1814) as Troximon marginatum from a collection by John Bradbury in upper Louisiana. Described again by Nuttall (1818) as Troximon marginatum from his collections on the grassy plains of upper Louisiana. Since Nuttall and Bradbury traveled together for a lengthy time, they may have collected the plant together. Placed by Gray (1884) in Microseris § Nothocalais, with a Greek name meaning notho-, false, and Calaďs, a synonym of Microseris. Greene (1886) elevated Nothocalais to the rank of genus.

 

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Packera fendleri;
Full Size ImageA small Packera plattensis fendleri in a rocky habitat.

Area List: Golden.  

Packera fendleri (A. Gray) W.A. Weber & Á. Löve “Fendler's Ragwort”

Packera fendleri (A. Gray) W.A. Weber & Á. Löve — Fendler's Ragwort — is widespread and fairly common in dry meadows and slopes of Golden s.l.. It is frequently confused with P. plattensis which is more a plant of the great plains.

P. fendleri was described by A. Gray (1849) in his Plantae Fendlerianae Novi-Mexicanae, an account of some of the plants collected in Santa Fe and surrounding New Mexico by Augustus Fendler, October 1846 to August 1847.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1902, Packera plattensis fendleri

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Packera plattensis;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1914, Packera plattensis

Area List: Golden.  

Packera plattensis (Nuttall) W. A. Weber & Á. Löve “Prairie Groundsel”

Prairie Groundsel — Packera plattensis (Nuttall) W. A. Weber & Á. Löve — is known in Golden s.l. only from a report on North Table Mountain (Zeise, 1976). It is easily confused with P. fendleri something which, indeed, the author has done many times. Until P. plattensis can be collected on North Table Mountain and confirmed in the herbarium, its presence there must be considered questionable. In Jefferson County, the plant is generally found at a little higher elevation, such as at Rocky Flats and Lippincott Ranch. The plant is not particularly common in Colorado, with a few collections out on the plains, with more around Boulder and Fort Collins. The greatest concentration of collections is in northern and eastern Kansas.

Packera plattensis was first described by Nuttall (1841) from plants he saw in the Rocky Mountains and in the Arkansa, though none of his specimens have survived.

 

Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1900b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Packera tridenticulata;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1643, Packera tridenticulata

Area List: Golden.  

Packera tridenticulata (Rydb.) W.A. Weber & Á. Löve “Three-Tooth Ragwort”

I have seen this plant — Packera tridenticulata (Rydb.) W.A. Weber & Á. Löve — once, at the North Washington Open Space. There is also a Bethel and Clokey collection made in 1921 giving “Golden” as the location. Of course, it has been collected at Rocky Flats. There are two collections made north of Golden along CO Highway 93. One gives the location as SE corner of 68th Street and Highway 93, the other as between 58 and 64th Avenue, on the east side of Highway 93, a location now built over by the Apple Meadows development. The author has stopped at both locations several times, and not seen the plant.

First published by Rydberg (1900) as Senecio tridenticulatus, it was moved to Packera by Weber & Love (1981).

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Picradeniopsis oppositifolia;

Area List: Golden.  

Picradeniopsis oppositifolia (Nutt.) Rydb. ex Britton “Opposite Leaf Bahia”

In Golden s.l. collected on South Table Mountain and known from “… gravelly hillsides …” There are also collections from intensely-collected areas of Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms. There are about 400 collections from Colorado, mostly on the plains and just barely into the foothills.

First described by Nuttall (1818) as Trichophyllum oppositifolium, which he found “… on denudated sterile hills, near Fort Mandan; abundant …”

 

Literature Cited:
- Michaux, Andre, 1803.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Prenanthes racemosa;

Area List: Golden.  

Prenanthes racemosa Michx. “Purple Rattlesnake Root”

There are two collections of Prenanthes racemosa Michx. “Purple Rattlesnake Root” in Golden s.l. One was made on Lookout Mountain, the other at a generic location of “Golden.” Beside these two, there are very few collections in Jefferson County, one on Lookout Mountain, and the other in Platte Canyon. There are few Colorado collections, the plant being uncommon in moist places, such as bogs, fens, and along streams.

The plant was first described by Michaux (1803) from plants in northern Canada.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Pseudognaphalium canescens;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1549, Pseudognaphalium canescens
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1549, Pseudognaphalium canescens

Area List: Golden.  

Pseudognaphalium canescens (DC.) Anderberg “Wright's Rabbit-Tobacco”

Seldom seen, “Wright's Rabbit-Tobacco” — Pseudognaphalium canescens (DC.) Anderberg — has been found in cracks, either natural such as in the Golden Cliffs Trail, or artificial such as between a sidewalk and a wall. There are three collections in Golden s.l. and very few other collections scattered around Jefferson County. The Colorado distribution is along the Front Range from Colorado Springs north, and then a small cluster of collections in Los Animas County along the New Mexico state line.

Our plant was first published as Gnaphalium canescens DC (1837) from dried specimens DeCandolle had seen, collected by Mendez in Leon, Guanajuato, Mexico.

 

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward L., 1902b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Pseudognaphalium macounii;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1257, Pseudognaphalium macounii

Area List: Golden.  

Pseudognaphalium macounii (Greene) Kartesz “Macoun's Rabbit-Tobacco”

There is but one collection of “Macoun's Rabbit-Tobacco” — Pseudognaphalium macounii (Greene) Kartesz — that may be within Golden s.l.. It was made at the Lookout Mountain Nature Center. This particular voucher (KHD8407) is determined Pseudognaphalium viscosum (Kunth) W.A Weber. However, Ackerfield (2015) does not accept the taxon in Colorado, and FNANM states that reports of P. viscosum from the flora for states other than Texas are based on plants of P. macounii. Therefore, I am treating the specimen as P. macounii.

There are two other collections of P. macounii from Jefferson County, one by the author made at Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space Park, and the other by E. H. Brunquist in the Filius Park picnic area, near Bergen Park.

Colorado collections are generally scattered on the highest plains and Front Range foothills from Colorado Springs north.

The plant was described by E. L. Greene (1902) from plants collected in British Columbia.

 

Literature Cited:
- Fraser, John, 1813.
- Reveal, James L., 1968.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ratibida columnifera;

Area List: Golden.  

Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl. “Upright Prairie Coneflower”

Prairie Coneflower (Ratibida columnifera) is predominantly a Great Plains forb, though widespread throughout the west. It is very common on the plains, in fields, along roads, and in open places in the foothills.

Around Golden, it is found in very open field, and in many private gardens. It is easy to grow from seed, yet not particularly invasive.

First collected and described by Thomas Nuttall, the name itself has been controversial because it was published in an unusual way (Fraser, 1813, Catalogue) without clearly identifying the author. This was discussed by many later botanists, as summarized by Reveal (1968).

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1198, Ratibida columnifera

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Senecio eremophilus var. kingii;

Area List: Golden.  

Senecio eremophilus Richardson var. kingii (Rydb.) Greenm. “Cut-Leaved Groundsel”

There is one collection of “Cut-Leaved Groundsel” — Senecio eremophilus Richardson var. kingii (Rydb.) Greenm. — made on North Table Mountain, and one other collection in Jefferson County made in 1903 at Buffalo Park (Creek). Typically, the plant is collected from the Front Range west in Colorado.

These collections were originally determined S. vulgaris and S. ambrosioides, respectively. S. ambrosioides Rydb. is a currently treated as a synonym of S. eremophilus var. kingii. S. vulgaris is a widely scattered weed of Eurasian origin. In Colorado, it has been mainly collected in the Denver area and the I-25 corridor north.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Senecio integerrimus;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1108, Senecio integerrimus on Tin Cup Ridge.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1897, Senecio integerrimus in Colorado School of Mines Survey Field.

Area List: Golden.  

Senecio integerrimus Nutt. “Columbia Ragwort”

“Columbia ragwort” — Senecio integerrimus — is very common throughout the central and western United States. It is often found in moist areas from the foothills to the subalpine. Colorado authors do not accept varieties of S. integerrimus.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Senecio riddellii;

Area List: Golden.  

Senecio riddellii (Torr. & A. Gray) Greenm. ex L.O. Williams “Riddell's Ragwort”

I have one data base record that suggests Ernest Brunquist collected Senecio riddellii (Torr. & A. Gray) Greenm. ex L.O. Williams “Riddell's Ragwort” at the Peabody Museum archeological dig. I believe this data came from SEINet, yet I am unable to relocate the data record. Therefore, it is possible though doubtful that Senecio riddellii occurs in Golden s.l.

 

Literature Cited:
- Fremont, John C., 1845.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Senecio spartioides;
• Field Notes:  6 Sep 2020;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2231, Senecio spartioides with a praying mantis and a beetle.

Area List: Golden.  

Senecio spartioides Torr. & A. Gray “Broomlike Ragwort”

“Broomlike Ragwort” — Senecio spartioides Torr. & A. Gray — is a late-blooming, bright yellow composite. It has been collected in Apex Park and Tin Cup Ridge, North and South Table Mountains, and North Washington Open Space. I have even seen it along the trail across CO Highway 93 from Mitchell School, and it is frequently adventive in gardens.

Senecio spartioides was described by Torrey and A. Gray (1843) from a Lt. John Fremont collection. There is a voucher at New York Botanic Garden (NY233440) that is labeled as the holotype and gives the location as “Sand bank, Cache Broad Camp, Sweet Water R., Aug. 21” Fremont's (1845) Report makes no mention of Cache Broad nor does it contain an entry for August 21, 1842. Welsh (1998, p. 161) lists the location as “vicinity of Jeffrey City” where the Senecio was collected along with Populus angustifolia and Cleome integrifolia.

Full Size Image
Senecio spartioides adventive in my garden.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Senecio wootonii;

Area List: Golden.  

Senecio wootonii Greene “Wooton's Ragwort”

This is another Senecio for which there may be one collection in Golden s.l. There are three other collections in Jefferson County, none of which were close to Golden. At the state level, this ragwort is found mainly in forests and meadows above 8000 feet.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Solidago canadensis;

Area List: Golden.  

Solidago canadensis L. “Canada Goldenrod”

There are two collections of Solidago canadensis L. “Canada Goldenrod” made in Golden s.l., one from South Table Mountain, and one apparently from a private flower garden. The author has not seen this in the field.

Described by Linnaeus, habitat described as Virginia and Canada.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Solidago gigantea;

Locations: Apex Gulch. Deadman Gulch.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2422, Solidago gigantea

Area List: Golden.  

Solidago gigantea Aiton “Giant Goldenrod”

Collections of “Giant Goldenrod” — Solidago gigantea Aiton — have been toward the south end of Golden s.l., to wit, Apex Gulch and Deadman Gulch. Most of the Jefferson County collections have been made along the Front Range, including the intensely-collected locations of Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms. The author has collected it at Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space. The goldenrod has been found throughout Colorado, but more densely in the urban areas along the Front Range.

The species was described by William Aiton (1789) in his Hortus Kewensis, a list of plants grown at Kew Gardens, though this particular plant was grown at the Physick Garden at Chelsea by Philip Miller.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Solidago missouriensis;
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1256, Solidago missouriensis at Ranson/Edwards.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1732, Solidago missouriensis at North Table Mountain.

Area List: Golden.  

Solidago missouriensis Nutt. “Missouri Goldenrod”

Fairly common around Golden s.l., Missouri Goldenrod — Solidago missouriensis — has been collected on North and South Table Mountains, North Washington Open Space, Kinney Run, and Apex Park. It is widely found in Jefferson County, especially at the intensely collected locations, such as Rocky Flats, Ranson/Edwards, and Chatfield Farms. At the state level, most collections are along the Front Range from Colorado Springs northward. Generally found west of the Mississippi River, west to the Mogollon of Arizona and to Washington and Oregon in the northwest.

First described by Thomas Nuttall (1834) from collections made on the upper Missouri River, the name has stood the test of time.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Solidago nana;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2439, Solidago nana.

Area List: Golden.  

Solidago nana Nutt. “Baby Goldenrod”

Similarly, the Baby Goldenrod — Solidago nana — is found in most places around Golden s.l.. Surprisingly, it has not been collected at Rocky Flats or Chatfield Farms, although it has been found at Golden Gate Canyon, and the author has collected it at Ranson/ Edwards. Colorado Plateau and Rocky Mountains from the Front Range west to the Wasatch Front, north into the mountains of Idaho and Montana.

This is another Nuttall-described taxon, from his tour across the continent 1834-1836.

 

Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustus Pyramus, 1836.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Solidago nemoralis ssp. decemflora;

Area List: Golden.  

Solidago nemoralis Aiton ssp. decemflora (de Candolle) Brammall ex Semple “Gray Goldenrod”

There may be collections of “Gray Goldenrod” — Solidago nemoralis Aiton ssp. decemflora (de Candolle) Brammall ex Semple — or they may be collections of a hybrid with S. nana or another undescribed infraspecific taxon. After distributing my specimens, other collectors have responded that they too have found plants that are clearly members of Solidago subsection nemorales Semple (2018), but cannot be easily further classified.

Regardless, in Golden s.l., there are several collections determined S. nemoralis ssp. decemflora from Lookout Mountain, although the records are a bit of a mess in terms of taxa determinations and georeferencing. My collections, which may or may not be this species, were made in Apex Park, essentially at the base of Lookout Mountain. Other collections in Jefferson County were made at Rocky Flats, Golden Gate Canyon State Park, &c. Colorado specimens are scattered along the Front Range and interior valleys of the southwest quadrant of the state.

The taxon S. decemflora was first recognized by DeCandole (1836) from dried specimens collected by Berlander in the Mexican province of Texas.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Solidago simplex;

Area List: Golden.  

Solidago simplex Kunth “Sticky Goldenrod”

There are two collections of “Sticky Goldenrod” — Solidago simplex Kunth ” one that is certainly in Golden s.l. and one from Lookout Mountain that may be in Golden s.l.

The taxon was described by Kunth (1818) from an Bonpland and Humboldt collection made in Santa Rosa, Queretaro (?), Mexico.

 

Literature Cited:
- Zeise, Larry Steven, 1976.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Solidago speciosa;
Full Size ImageImage of KHD65160, Schweich Coll. No. 1768, Solidago speciosa.

Area List: Golden.  

Solidago speciosa Nutt. “Showy Goldenrod”

There is one report (Zeise, 1976) of S. speciosa on North Table Mountain. This has not been confirmed by a collection, or by another collection from Golden s.l.

It is certainly possible that the species is present, as there are two other collections from Jefferson County; one of them by the author at Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space. A little further afield, there are 88 collections from Colorado concentrated in the foothills north of Colorado Springs.

 

Literature Cited:
- Coulter, John M., and Aven Nelson, 1909.
- Torrey, John G., 1828.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Lygodesmia juncea;  Notes on Stephanomeria pauciflora;

Area List: Golden.  

Stephanomeria pauciflora (Torr.) A. Nelson “Brownplume Wirelettuce”

There are two collections of “Brownplume Wirelettuce” — Stephanomeria pauciflora (Torr.) A. Nelson, one each from North and South Table Mountains. The plant is not often collected in Jefferson County and the place most often collected is Rocky Flats.

Described by Dr. John Torrey (1827) from a collection by Edwin James in 1820. James' collection was made July 7, 1820 in Jefferson County, when the party entered South Platte Canyon.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1515, Stephanomeria pauciflora

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Symphyotrichum ericoides;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1743.5, Symphyotrichum ericoides

Area List: Golden.  

Symphyotrichum ericoides (Linnaeus) G. L. Nesom “White Heath Aster”

There are two similar “white asters” found in Golden s.l. and Jefferson County. The appearance and distribution of the two are roughly the same, though one is a little larger than the other. Nesom, writing in FNANM, states that the two can be difficult to distinguish on the eastern plains. The smaller is Symphyotrichum ericoides and is discussed here; the larger is S. falcatum and is discussed next.

There is only one collection of “White Heath Aster” — Symphyotrichum ericoides (Linnaeus) G. L. Nesom — in Golden s.l. and that collection was found beside Cheyenne Street near 4th Street. The author has also found the plant adventive in planted native gardens. There are a few other collections around Jefferson County, mostly along the Front Range and in the intensely-collected locations of Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms. Colorado collections are scattered around the state, with the typical concentration in the urban areas along the Front Range.

The plant was first described by Linnaeus (1753) as Aster ericoides with habitat in North America, although it is possible to trace references to the plant in the pre-Linnaean literature back to 1702. Nesom (1994, p. 281) placed the species in Symphyotrichum when he reorganized the Astereae.

 

Literature Cited:
- Hooker, Sir William Jackson, 1829-1840.
- Nesom, Guy L., 1994.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Symphyotrichum falcatum;

Area List: Golden.  

Symphyotrichum falcatum (Lindl.) G.L. Nesom “White Prairie Aster”

The larger of the two white asters is “White Prairie Aster” — Symphyotrichum falcatum (Lindl.) G.L. Nesom, of which there are five collections and one observation. The number of collections and their distribution around Jefferson County is roughly the same as S. ericoides, as their distribution around the state.

S. falcatum was described by Lindley in Hooker (1840). Nesom (1994) reorganized the Asters, placing our plant in Symphyotrichum.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1300, Symphyotrichum falcatum
Full Size Image
Inflorescence of Coll. No. 1300, Symphyotrichum falcatum

 

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1884.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Symphyotrichum laeve;
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1291, Symphyotrichum laeve

Area List: Golden.  

Symphyotrichum laeve (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve var. geyeri (A. Gray) G.L. Nesom “Smooth Blue Aster”

Usually an inhabitant of higher elevations, “Smooth Blue Aster” — Symphyotrichum laeve (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve var. geyeri (A. Gray) G.L. Nesom — is found on Lookout Mountain in Golden s.l. The author has also collected it at Ranson/Edwards Homestead Park, and there are collections from Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms. Its Colorado distribution includes the westernmost plains and southwest mountain valleys, especially around Pagosa Springs.

The basionym was published as Aster laevis L. var. Geyeri A. Gray (1884) with little comment.

Full Size Image
Flower head of Coll. No. 1291, Symphyotrichum laeve

 

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1884.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Symphyotrichum lanceolatum ssp. hesperium;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 724, Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. hesperium

Area List: Golden.  

Symphyotrichum lanceolatum (Willd.) G. L. Nesom ssp. hesperium (A. Gray) G. L. Nesom Western Lance-Leaved Aster

Found scattered around southern Golden s.l., “Western Lance-Leaved Aster” — Symphyotrichum lanceolatum (Willd.) G. L. Nesom ssp. hesperium (A. Gray) G. L. Nesom — has been collected on South Table Mountain, in riparian areas of Deadman Gulch, and at Heritage Square. In Jefferson County, it is found primarily on the highest plains and just barely into the foothills. It is also found in the interior valleys of the Rocky Mountains and sparingly out on the plains.

Like the preceding, the basionym was published by A. Gray (1884).

 

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1880.
- Porter, Thomas C., and John M. Coulter, 1874.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Symphyotrichum porteri;

Area List: Golden.  

Symphyotrichum porteri (A. Gray) G.L. Nesom “Smooth White Aster”

Probably the most common Symphyotrichum in Golden s.l., the “Smooth White Aster” — Symphyotrichum porteri (A. Gray) G.L. Nesom — has been found in all locations from north to south, in addition to being adventive in Golden gardens. Found mostly along the Front Range and foothills of Jefferson County, with a few collections in the Buffalo Creek - Deckers area. Nearly all Colorado collections are along the Front Range north of Cańon City.

First recognized as a distinct taxon by Porter & Coulter (1874), whereas the basionym was first published by Gray (1880).

Full Size Image
Habitat of Coll. No. 1297, Symphyotrichum porteri on Tin Cup Ridge.

 

Literature Cited:
- Kuntze, Otto, 1891-1898.
- Sprengel, Curt Polycarp Joachim, 1826.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Hymenopappus filifolius Hook. var. polycephalus;  Notes on Thelesperma megapotamicum;

Area List: Golden.  

Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze “Hopi Tea Greenthread”

Greenthread has ethnographic interest from its use in making dyes and medicinal teas. It is common around Golden, found North Washington Open Space, on North and South Table Mountains, and in the CSM Survey Field. There are twenty collections from Jefferson County.

Pinnately divided leaves with linear to filiform lobes and a unique involucre make this plant easy to identify in the field. Most floras describe the involucre having two rows of phyllaries, the lowest spreading, and the upper appressed. However, other sources refer to the lower series as calyculi, and occasionally photos will show them separated from the involucre by a short distance.

First described as Bidens megapotamica by Sprengel (1826) from the Greek megas, "big or great," potamos, "river," in reference to its location on the large rivers of the American west. Placed in Thelesperma by Kuntze (1898) who only referred to an Argentinian location. The species has a disjunct distribution between North and South America.

Full Size Image
Tea made from Thelesperma megapotamicum
Full Size Image
Head of Thelesperma megapotamicum
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1707, Thelesperma megapotamicum

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Townsendia exscapa;
Full Size ImageTownsendia exscapa at Fort Union.

Area List: Golden.  

Townsendia exscapa (Richards.) Porter “Stemless Townsend Daisy”

There is one collection of “Stemless Townsend Daisy” — Townsendia exscapa (Richards.) Porter — made in Golden s.l. and it is one of two collections in all of Jefferson County. Some putative vouchers of T. exscapa are really duplicates of Clokey's #4338, the type of T. hookeri.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Townsendia in Golden s.l.;  Townsendia grandiflora, Nuttall, 1840;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1247, 24 Jul 2015;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1247, Townsendia grandiflora

Area List: Golden.  

Townsendia grandiflora Nutt. “Largeflower Townsend Daisy”

Largeflower Townsend Daisy — Townsendia grandiflora Nutt. — is found on North and South Table Mountains, in Chimney Gulch, and in Kinney Run. Jefferson County collections are mostly at the base of the Rocky Mountain Front Range or in the adjacent hogbacks.

Collected by Nuttall (1840) on his expedition to the Oregon Territory. He gives the location as on the Black Hills near the banks of the [North] Platte. I think at that time the Black Hills has a more broad definition than at present.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1247, Townsendia grandiflora

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Townsendia hookeri;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1071, 12 Mar 2015.;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1071, Townsendia hookeri

Area List: Golden.  

Townsendia hookeri Beaman “Hooker's Townsend Daisy”

This white daisy (see Figure 7, above) is often overlooked because of its small size and very early blooming date. It typically blooms from mid-March to mid-April. Common, but only collected from CSM Mines Survey Field and South Table Mountain. The type was collected by Ira W. Clokey in Mount Vernon Canyon just south of Golden s.l. and published by Beaman (1957) as a segregate from T. exscapa.

 

Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustus Pyramus, 1836.
- Gray, Asa, 1884.
- Morgan, David R., and Ronald L. Hartman, 2003.
- Moulton, Gary E., 1999.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1813.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Xanthisma spinulosum;

Area List: Golden.  

Xanthisma spinulosum (Pursh) D. R. Morgan & R. L. Hartm. “Spiny Goldenweed”

“Spiny Goldenweed” — Xanthisma spinulosum (Pursh) D. R. Morgan & R. L. Hartm.— was formerly known only from South Table Mountain until recently when the author found it at Eagle Ridge and Apex Park. Jefferson County collections are mostly along the base of the Front Range, including the intensely collected locations of Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms. Further afield, “Spiny Goldenweed” has been collected at lower elevations throughout Colorado, except the northwest corner of the state.

This plant was first collected by Lewis & Clark in Lyman County, South Dakota, on the Missouri River, passing the mouth of the White River (Moulton, 1999). Nuttall (1813) must have also collected the plant on the Missouri in 1811, but the genus name he applied (Sideranthus) was a nomen nudum. Thus, the name Pursh (1814) applied, Amellus spinulosus was the first validly published name, and is the basionym. Gray (1884) recognized Xanthisma but did not place our plant there, instead treating it as Aplopappus spinulosus DC. DeCandolle (1836) published Haplopappus spinulosus, but not an Aplopappus sp. Morgan & Hartman (2003) reorganized Macharanthera s.l. and treated our plant as a Xanthisma sp.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2438, Xanthisma spinulosum

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Alopecurus aequalis;

Area List: Golden.  

Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. “Shortawn Foxtail.”

Several observations and one collection from North Table Mountain. Although one voucher of the collection has been annotated as A. x haussknechtianus Asch. & Graebn. [aequalis × geniculatus]. Other vouchers made the same day have been determined A. geniculatus L., a non-native, as has a collection by the author at a nearby location. A historic collection from Tucker Gulch in 1922 has been recently (1990) annotated A. aequalis. There are a few other collections in Jefferson County, in particular several from the Chatfield Farms and Deer Creek areas. Generally known from Colorado from the Front Range west onto the Western Slope. It generally grows in wet meadows, forest openings, shores, springs, and along streams, as well as in ditches, along roadsides, and in other disturbed sites, from sea level to subalpine elevations.

The grass is native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere, including Colorado, to the Andes.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Andropogon gerardii;

Area List: Golden.  

Andropogon gerardii Vitman. “Big Bluestem”

There are six collections of “Big Bluestem” — Andropogon gerardii Vitman — in Golden s.l., from Dakota Ridge in the north, North and South Table Mountains, to Heritage Square in the south.

Jefferson County collections cluster around Rocky Flats and Ranson/Edwards in the very north, and Golden s.l., with one collection at Chatfield Farms.

Found along the Front Range and somewhat out on the eastern plains, with an additional few collections along the southern border of Colorado.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Aristida purpurea;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1140, Aristida purpurea
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1140, Aristida purpurea var. longiseta

Area List: Golden.  

Aristida purpurea Nutt. “Purple Threeawn ”

Small perennial grass that is widespread around Golden s.l., common throughout Colorado, native to southwestern North America. A variable species with five varieties recognized by Shaw (2008) and Ackerfield (2015), four (sort of) recognized by Weber & Wittmann (2012), and none by Wingate (1994). Nine of 23 vouchers of A. purpurea from Jefferson County are determined to variety. Those that are determined to variety are variety longiseta (Steud.) Vasey.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Bouteloua curtipendula;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1241, Bouteloua curtipendula

Area List: Golden.  

Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr. in Marcy “Side-Oats Grama”

Bouteloua curtipendula, commonly known as sideoats grama, is a perennial, short prairie grass that is native throughout the temperate and tropical Western Hemisphere, from Canada south to Argentina. The species epithet comes from Latin curtus "shortened" and pendulus "hanging."

Side-oats grama has been collected in several places throughout Golden s. l., from Heritage Square, to North and South Table Mountain, to Windy Saddle Park.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Bouteloua gracilis;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1242, Bouteloua gracilis

Area List: Golden.  

Bouteloua gracilis (Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths “Blue Grama Grass”

Blue Grama Grass – Bouteloua gracilis (Kunth) Lag. Ex Griffiths – is a very common short-grass prairie grass. It has been widely collected around Golden, from Heritage Square in the south to North Table Mountain.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Bromus lanatipes;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2170, Bromus lanatipes

Area List: Golden.  

Bromus lanatipes (Shear) Rydb. “Wooly Brome”

There are two collections of “Wooly Brome” — Bromus lanatipes (Shear) Rydb. — that may or not be from Golden s.l.. One is a Marcus E. Jones collection, June 17, 1878, with the location described as “Foot Hills near Golden.” The other is a George W. Letterman collection, July 13, 1885, with the location simply “Golden.” The author has collected this grass in northernmost Jefferson County, so it is possible that it occurs in Golden. However, the habitat was deep forest duff in ponderosa pine woodland. Another collection with habitat data also mentions “needle duff in clearings between trees.” We really have very little of that habitat in Golden s.l. Perhaps there is a some at Apex Park and on Lookout Mountain and those places should be examined for the grass.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Bromus polyanthus;

Area List: Golden.  

Bromus polyanthus Scribn. ex Shear. “Great Basin Brome”

Scattered around Colorado, with one collection near Golden s.l. at the Table Mountain Ranch.

 

Literature Cited:
- Columbus, J. Travis, 1999.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Buffalo Grass;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1673, 16 Jun 2017;
• Glossary:  dioecious;

Locations: North Table Mountain. North Washington Open Space. South Table Mountain.

Area List: Golden.  

Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm. “Buffalo Grass”

Buffalo Grass is a widespread common short-grass prairie grass. Around Golden it has been found on North and South Table Mountains, and at the North Washington Open Space. It should also be in Kinney Run and on Tin Cup Ridge. However, there are no collections or other reports.

Buffalo Grass was first collected by Thomas Nuttall on his 1811 trip to the Upper Missouri. He collected the male or staminate plant, not recognizing that there should have been an female or pistillate plant. Published in Nuttall's (1818) Genera as Sesleria dactyloides, it is clear that Nuttall had his doubts, but that was the best fit among the genera of grasses that Nuttall knew. Rafinesque (1819) jumped on Nuttall's uncertainty, in much the same way he jumped Torrey's uncertainty about our local Cercocapus, and proposed Bulbilis from Nuttall's note that the root resembled a bulb after flowering.

George Engelmann (1859) recognized that Buffalo Grass has male and female flowers on separate plants, and thus is termed dioecious, and that a new genus name was needed for it. Using Greek words for Buffalo (Bubalo) and Grass (chloë), and contracting them together he formed the name Buchloë. For years I pronounced it Buk-loe, but in using the root words correctly it should probably be pronounced Boo-chloe.

There have been continuing debates whether Buffalo Grass is truly dioecious, or whether it may be monoecious. I think generally this controversy has faded with the realization that occasionally monoecious plants may be found, whereas the plant is nearly always dioecious.

More recently phylogenetic studies have repeatedly shown that separating Buchloë from Bouteloua – the grama grasses – renders Bouteloua paraphyletic. Since we would really prefer to arrange plant species into monophyletic groups, we probably should be calling Buffalo Grass Bouteloua dactyloides (Nutt.) Columbus.

Full Size Image
Pistllate inflorescence of Buchloe dactyloides
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1673, Buchloe dactyloides

 

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1856.
- Hackel, Eduard, 1890.
- Hooker, Sir William Jackson, 1829-1840.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Calamovilfa longifolia;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2397, 29 Jul 2020;

Area List: Golden.  

Calamovilfa longifolia (Hook.) Scribn. “Prairie Sandreed”

Prairie Sandreed — Calamovilfa longifolia (Hook.) Scribn. — is a recent addition to the known flora of Golden s.l. having been collected for the first time at Dakota Ridge (North Hogback) in 2020. Previously, it was known from only three locations in all of Jefferson County: Chatfield Recreation Area, Bear Creek Golf Course, and Rocky Flats. As the name implies, this grass is more common out on the prairie in eastern Colorado. Reading through the location descriptions, though, it seems like this grass might be facilitated by disturbance.

First described by Hooker from a collection made by Drummond in Saskatchewan (Hooker, 1840). Scribner placed it in Calamovilfa as an edit to his 1890 translation of Hackel's Die Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien. Calamovilfa was a name used by Gray (1856, p. 548) for a subgenera of Calamagrostis. Calamo- probably means reed-like, and vilfa is a name used by Adanson (1763) that is now treated as a synonym of Calamagrostis.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2397, Calamovilfa longifolia
Full Size Image
Florets of Coll. No. 2397, Calamovilfa longifolia
Full Size Image
Spikelets of Coll. No. 2397, Calamovilfa longifolia

 

Literature Cited:
- Roemer, Johann Jacob, and Josef August Schultes, 1817-1830.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Danthonia spicata;
Full Size ImageSpikelets of Coll. No. 2162, Danthonia spicata

Area List: Golden.  

Danthonia spicata (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult. “Poverty Oatgrass”

First described as Avena spicata L. with a habitat in Pennsylvania, the grass was placed in Danthonia DC. by Roemer & Schultes (1817). There is one collection that is more than 40 years old from Heritage Square. This collection was made by Ron Wittmann and Judy Wittmann and is at COLO. In northern Jefferson County, the author has collected it at both Ranson/Edwards and Lippincott Ranch, and there are several collections from Rocky Flats. There a couple of collections from Deer Creek in southern Jefferson County. So it still may persist around the edges of Golden s.l.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Elymus albicans;

Area List: Golden.  

Elymus albicans (Scribn. & J.G.Sm.) Á.Löve. “Montana Wild Rye”

There no collections of this grass in Golden s.l., only a report from North Table Mountain. In theory it could found in Golden s.l. perhaps in some of the higher parts, as there are collections from the nearby Mt. Vernon Country Club. A little farther afield there are collections from the north, Rocky Flats and south, Deer Creek. Most of the Colorado collections are from the Front Range with a few scattered on the west slope and in the San Juan Mountains.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Elymus canadensis;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1699, Elymus canadensis

Area List: Golden.  

Elymus canadensis L. “Canadian Wildrye”

There are four collections of “Canadian Wildrye” — Elymus canadensis L. — from North and South Table Mountains, Eagle Ridge, and the Survey Field.

The name Elymus canadensis L. is one of the few remaining Linnaean names of native grasses. Linnaeus described the grass from a Petr Kalm collection in Canada.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.
- Swezey, Goodwin D., 1891.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Elymus elymoides;

Area List: Golden.  

Elymus elymoides (Raf.) Swezey “Squirreltail”

Squirreltail — Elymus elymoides (Raf.) Swezey — is common in Golden s.l. It has been collected on North and South Table Mountains, North Washington Open Space, the Survey Field and Eagle Ridge.

Common in Jefferson County, especially noted in intensely collected locations, such as Rocky Flats. Generally, common throughout Colorado except for the plains in the easternmost part of the state.

First collected on the arid plains of the Missouri River by Thomas Nuttall and described by him in his Genera of North American Plants (1818) as Ćgilops hystrix Nutt. If that genus sounds familiar, it is because the name of the List B noxious weed “Jointed Goat Grass” is Ćgilops cylindrica Host. It would be interesting to compare the lemmas (called valves of the corolla) of E. elymoides and Ć. cylindrica side by side. The other name commonly applied to this grass is Sitanion hystrix (Nutt.) J. G. Sm. well into the 1960s and 1970s. Indeed that is the name I learned it by. Recent phylogenetic work suggests the grass should be placed in Elymus, and the valid name for it there, Elymus elymoides (Raf.) Swezey, was published by Swezey (1891).

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1717, Elymus elymoides

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Elymus glaucus;

Area List: Golden.  

Elymus glaucus Buckley. “Blue Wild Rye”

There are no collections of Elymus glaucus Buckley. “Blue Wild Rye” in Golden s.l., nor are there any collections from Jefferson County. There is only a report from North Table Mountain. There are quite a few collections from the mountains of Colorado where it is found in moist or dry mountain meadows, open forests, etc.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Elymus trachycaulus;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1999, Elymus trachycaulis

Area List: Golden.  

Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners. “Slender Wheatgrass”

Four collections in Golden s.l., from North and South Table Mountains and Heritage Square.

In Jefferson County, there are collections scattered around the county, including one made by the author at the Buffalo Creek Recreation Area.

Found throughout Colorado, though with fewer collections on the eastern plains.

The first name applied to this grass was Triticum trachycaulus Link, apparently grown at the Berlin Botanic Garden from seed sent there by a Dr. Richardson.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Elymus virginicus L.;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1561, Elymus virginicus

Area List: Golden.  

Elymus virginicus L. “Virginia Wildrye”

I have never seen this in the wild near Golden s.l.. Instead, my familiarity is from a few plants that appeared in my native plant garden. My best guess is that the seed was a contaminant in seed of Sorghastrum nutans or “Yellow Indian Grass.” There are a few collections (actually: 4) made in Jefferson County. They are from Chatfield Farms, and Roxborough State Park, with one odd collection along the south edge of Golden Gate Canyon State Park.

The grass is native to the United States and Canada from the eastern seaboard west to Colorado and Arizona. As the name might imply, Linnaeus (1753, v. 1, p. 84) described the plant habitat as Virginia.

 

Literature Cited:
- Michaux, Andre, 1803.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Eragrostis pectinacea;

Area List: Golden.  

Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) Nees ex Steud. “Tufted Lovegrass”

There s only ony collection, from a dried pond (vernal pool?) on South Table Mountain. There are only three other collections in Jefferson County, from Golden Gate State Park and Chatfield Farms. Found mostly on the eastern plains up to the foothills, and on the southern slopes of the San Juan Mountains. Known from all lower 48 states and several Canadian provinces.

Originally described as Poa pectinacea by Michaux (1803) from fields in Illinois. Nees (1841) may have validly published it as Eragrostis pectinacea but it really looks to me like it took Steudel (1855) to finish the job.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Achnatherum hymenoides;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 477, Stipa hymenoides

Area List: Golden.  

Achnatherum hymenoides (Roem. & Schult.) Barkworth. “Indian Rice Grass”

This striking grass is not common in Golden s.l.. There is one collection on South Table Mountain, another at an unidentified location along US Highway 6, and several observations on North Table Mountain. Other collections in Jefferson County are along the Front Range foothills, especially in the intensively-collected locations of Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms. More broadly, in Colorado, Indian Rice Grass is found throughout the state, and throughout the western United States west of 101°W, i.e., occurring just barely in western Kansas and Nebraska.

I first encountered this grass in the Mono Lake basin, Mono County, California. There it was common on the volcanic sands and former beach strands of Pleistocene Lake Mono, and in granitic sands on the edges of the basin.

The first valid name for this grass was Stipa hymenoides Roem. & Schult., a name that is still in use in California today. In other floras, the grass was placed in Oryzopsis, and then in Achnatherum. W may start using Eriocoma Nutt. as the generic name, because some of the more recent phylogenetic work shows that Achnatherum is best applied to Eurasian grasses, while the similar New World grasses form a unique clade and should thus have their own name. The oldest generic name applied to this grass is Eriocoma Nuttall (1818), a name that Nuttall proposed to this very same grass though he called it E. cuspidata Nutt. Since the specific epithet hymenoides Roem. & Schult. (1817) has priority over Nuttall's 1818 name, Eriocoma hymenoides (Roem. & Schult.) Rydb. was proposed by Peterson, et al. (2019).

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Achnatherum robustum;
• “Tilting Mesa Cut-Off”:   near pond;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1740, 15 Aug 2017;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1493, Achnatherum robustum
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1740, Achnatherum robustum

Area List: Golden.  

Achnatherum robustum (Vasey) Barkworth. “Sleepygrass”

“Sleepygrass” — Achnatherum robustum (Vasey) Barkworth — has been collected on North and South Table Mountains, and at Heritage Square by E. H. Brunquist collecting for the Peabody Museum dig at Magic Mountain. It has been collected at scattered locations around Jefferson County, including well into the foothills.

Very commonly found along the Front Range in Colorado, with scattered location west of the Continental Divide.

It seems likely that the proposed name of Eriocoma robusta (Vasey) Romasch. will accepted in the future.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Achnatherum scribneri;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2418, 11 Aug 2020;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2418, Achnatherum scribneri

Area List: Golden.  

Achnatherum scribneri (Vasey) Barkworth “Scribner Needle Grass”

There is only one collection in the vicinity of Kinney Run. Other collections in Jefferson County have been at Pine Valley Ranch Park and Waterton Canyon, with an additional report in northernmost Jefferson County. Generally distributed in the foothills and lower parts of the Front Range and Sangre de Cristo Range.

It seems likely that the proposed name of Eriocoma scribneri (Vasey) Romasch. will accepted in the future.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Glyceria striata;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1446, Glyceria striata

Area List: Golden.  

Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc. “Striate Manna Grass”

There are two collections of “Striate Manna Grass” — Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc. — from North Table Mountain in Golden s.l. There are a few other Jefferson County collections, in wet places scattered around the county.

Generally found from the Front Range foothills west in Colorado, though it it known from all states in the continental United States and almost all Canadian provinces.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Hesperostipa comata;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 992, Stipa comata var. comata
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1929, Hesperostipa comata

Area List: Golden.  

Hesperostipa comata (Trin. & Rupr.) Barkworth. “Needle and Thread”

“Needle and Thread” — Hesperostipa comata (Trin. & Rupr.) Barkworth ‐ is a very attractive and common grass in Golden s.l. and indeed throughout the northern and western United States and Canadian provinces. For example, the author has also collected it at Mono Lake, California, though California botanists retain the species in Stipa comata Trin & Rupr.

Credit probably goes to Andre Michaux (1803) for first recognizing H. comata who noted the grass lives “ … in the rocky mountains from the Hudson to Canada.” Unfortunately, Michaux applied Stipa juncea to this grass, a name that Linnaeus had already applied to a grass occurring in Switzerland and France. Pursh (1814) also applied S. juncea to a Lewis & Clark collection made July 8, 1806, made “ … Valleys of the Missouri in the Rocky Mountains.” Nuttall (1818) also applied S. juncea to his collections on the grassy plains of the Missouri. It was not until Trinius & Ruprect (1842) that the grass was recognized as its own species. Barkworth (1993) described Hesperostipa as a North American endemic that is distinct from the Eurasian Stipa s. s. and more closely allied to the South American genera of Piptochaetium and Nassella.

There is another Hesperostipa, H. spartea (Trin.) Barkworth, that has been found in northernmost Jefferson County, at Rocky Flats and Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space Park. Both of those locations are a thousand feet higher than Golden s.l. and the grass has been found in open grasslands, a vegetation type that is not common locally. This grass is not as common, and has a slightly more restricted natural range, not found in the far west.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Hordeum brachyantherum;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1214, Hordeum brachyantherum in open water of spring.

Area List: Golden.  

Hordeum brachyantherum Nevski. “Meadow Barley”

It seems like Hordeum brachyantherum Nevski — “Meadow Barley” — should be fairly common around Golden s.l. though there are only three collections and one of them on Lookout Mountain may not have been made in Golden. The author has collected it at Ranson/Edwards and there are several collections from Rocky Flats. In Colorado, Meadow Barley is found from the Front Range and to the west, although it is known from most of the United States and Canada, except for the central plains states, and from the coastal area os easternmost Russia.

The name was published in 1936 in Sergei Nevski, a Russian botanist who worked at the Main Botanical Garden in Leningrad. Most collections before that time were originally determined Hordeum nodosum L.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Hordeum jubatum;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 664, Hordeum jubatum

Area List: Golden.  

Hordeum jubatum L. “Foxtail Barley”

Somewhat more common that Meadow Barley is Foxtail Barley — Hordeum jubatum L. — with collections on North and South Table Mountains, with an odd Marcus E. Jones collection simply stating “Golden.”

Linnaeus (1753) described this grass from a collection made in Canada by Pehr Kalm.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Hordeum pusillum;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1453, Hordeum pusillum

Area List: Golden.  

Hordeum pusillum Nutt. “Little Barley”

Hordeum pusillum Nutt. — the Little Barley — is not often collected around Golden. In fact, there are only ten collections from Jefferson County. The majority of those were made by Dr. Janet Wingate, our regional grass expert. Around Golden there are collections from North and South Table Mountains. The grass is probably more common than the number of collections would indicate, but it is overlooked because of its size and similarity to other common grasses.

 

Literature Cited:
- Ledebour, Carl (Karl) Friedrich von, 1812.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Koeleria macrantha;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1131, Koeleria macrantha

Area List: Golden.  

Koeleria macrantha (Ledeb.) Schult. “Prairie Junegrass”

I would have thought that a grass with a name like “Prairie Junegrass” — Koeleria macrantha (Ledeb.) Schult. — would be endemic to our prairies. However, in addition to being native to nearly the entire continental United States and Canada, it is also native to Eurasia, including Siberia. In fact, the grass was described by a German botanist from Russian southeastern Siberia, near the border with Mongolia (Ledebour, 1812).

It is, of course, a well-known, easy-to-recognize, common grass around Golden s.l.. There are eight collections, from North and South Table Mountains, and many of the smaller open spaces.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Leymus triticoides;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1487, Leymus triticoides

Area List: Golden.  

Leymus triticoides (Buckley) Pilger. “Beardless Wildrye”

There is only one collection of “Beardless Wildrye” — Leymus triticoides (Buckley) Pilger — made in Golden s.l. and only two others in Jefferson County. The collection in Golden was made by the author on very steep lower slopes of Lookout Mountain, whereas the two other collections were made in Golden Gate Canyon State Park, and in Guy Gulch near Clear Creek. This is not a very common grass in Colorado and is found between about 6,000 ft and 9,500 ft. It is generally known from Texas and Colorado west and north to British Columbia.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Muhlenbergia andina;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2392, 24 Jul 2020;

Locations: Tsegi Canyon.

Area List: Golden.  

Muhlenbergia andina (Nutt.) Hitchc. “Foxtail Muhly”

One collection of this grass was made in 2020 on the north bank of Clear Creek just west of the US Hwy 6 bridge. This collection will be deposited at Denver Botanic Garden, where its tentative determination can be confirmed. Other collections in the Clear Creek basin are limited to the Georgetown area, some distance away and at a higher elevation.

In Colorado in general, collections in Colorado tend to be at mid-elevations, and concentrated in the San Juan Mountains. Around the North America, the plant is found in the southwest United States, south of 45° and west of 104.5°.

The plant was first described as Calamagrostis andina Nutt. from a collection in 1841 by William Gambel. Nuttall (1848b) describes the location as “… on the Colorado of the West ...” Gambel's proximity to the Colorado (River) would have been on this travels along the Old Spanish Trail with the Rowland-Workman party. The most likely locality of that collection, based upon proximity to the Colorado (River), the Old Spanish Trail, and existing georeferenced collections of Muhlenbergia andina would be Tsegi Canyon, Navajo County, Arizona.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2392, Muhlenbergia andina.
Full Size Image
Rhizome of Coll. No. 2392, Muhlenbergia andina.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Muhlenbergia asperifolia;
Full Size ImageDried collection of Alkali Muhley, my collection no. 490.

Area List: Golden.  

Muhlenbergia asperifolia (Nees & Meyen ex Trin.) Parodi. “Alkali Muhley”

One collection in Golden s.l. made on South Table Mountain. Known from Jefferson County on the high plains along the foothills, including the intensely-collected places of Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms. Collections are scattered around the state of Colorado, except for the high mountains. The global range is most of the United States and Canadian provinces, and South American from Bolivia south.

The author has collected it on the western shores of Mono Lake.

 

Literature Cited:
- Hitchcock, A. S., 1920.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Muhlenbergia montana;

Area List: Golden.  

Muhlenbergia montana (Nutt.) Hitchc. “Mountain Muhly”

Mountain Muhly ‐ Muhlenbergia montana — has been found in scattered locations round Golden s.l., mostly on ridges, mountain tops, and other edges of the landscape. It is fairly easy to recognize with a hand lens because the upper glume is 3-toothed.

First collected by William Gambel near Santa Fe, New Mexico in August, 1841, Nuttall (1848) described Gambel's plants and published the name in a new genus Calycodon. In selecting a new genus for the grass, Nuttall (1848) noted the similarity to Muhlenbergia, but the distinct glumes led him to propose a new genus. Hitchcock (1920) placed C. montanum in Muhlenbergia.

The grass is sparingly distributed around Jefferson County, primarily at the higher-elevation, well-studied locations such as Rocky Flats and Ranson/Edwards. It is not reported for Chatfield, another well-studied site, but at a lower elevation.

Muhlenbergia montana grows on rocky slopes and ridge tops and in dry meadows and open grasslands, at elevations of 1400-3500 m. Its range extends from the western United States to Guatemala, but seems to be chiefly limited to central portion of the Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateau.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1282, Muhlenbergia montana
Full Size Image
Inflorescence of Coll. No. 1282, Muhlenbergia montana

 

Literature Cited:
- Britton, Nathaniel Lord, Emerson Ellick Sterns, and Justus Ferdinand Poggenburg, 1888.
- Michaux, Andre, 1803.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Muhlenbergia racemosa;

Area List: Golden.  

Muhlenbergia racemosa (Michx.) Britton, Stern & Poggenb. “Marsh Muhly”

There ia a single collection of Muhlenbergia racemosa in Golden s.l. for 1895. There are a few other collections in Jefferson County, from Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms, and Coal Creek. There are collections scattered around most regions of Colorado, with maybe a slight concentration along the base of the Front Range. Known from the continental United States and Canadian provinces except for the far west and far east.

Originally named Agrostis racemosa by Andre Michaux (1803) with the location described as “… on the gravelly inundated bank along the whole of the Mississipi river.” Britton et al. (1888) published Muhlenbergia racemosa without discussion or comment.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2658, Muhlenbergia racemosa

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Muhlenbergia wrightii;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1276, Muhlenbergia wrightii
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1553, Muhlenbergia wrightii

Area List: Golden.  

Muhlenbergia wrightii Vasey ex J.M. Coult. “Spike Muhly”

There are collections of “Spike Muhly” — Muhlenbergia wrightii Vasey ex J.M. Coult. — from both North and South Table Mountains. The two collections on North Table Mountain were made close to each other in a small watercourse near North Table Loop. The South Table Mountain collection made in 1983 is georeferenced to a location now covered by a house built in 1979, so the location given is a georeferencing error. There is open space a very short distance to the north.

Collections of M. wrightii in Jefferson County are in high plains below the Front Range, including Rocky Flats and Ranson/Edwards, but not Chatfield Farms. Beyond Jefferson County, there are a few scattered collections throughout Colorado. The grass is native to Arizona, Colorado, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Utah.

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1857a.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Munroa squarrosa;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1551, 1 Sep 2016;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1551, Munroa squarrosa

Area List: Golden.  

Munroa squarrosa (Nutt.) Torr. “False Buffalograss”

Sometimes spelled Monroa, this odd little grass has been found on both North and South Table Mountains. The author has only seen it in one small place on North Table Mountain. There are also two 19th century collections with a location of “Golden” and a Marcus E. Jones on the Platte River in Denver, Jefferson County (sic). Scattered around dry places at lower elevations in Colorado, especially out on the plains.

First described by Nuttall (1818) from a collection of his on “ ... arid plains near the ‘Grand Detour’ of the Missouri, almost exclusively covering thousands of acres …” Named Monroa squarrosa Torrey (1859), which is treated an a orthographic variant.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Nassella viridula;
Full Size ImageInflorescence of Coll. No. 1146, Nassella viridula

Area List: Golden.  

Nassella viridula (Trin.) Barkworth “Green Needlegrass”

“Green Needlegrass” — Nassella viridula (Trin.) Barkworth — is very common in Golden s.l. having been collected from Dakota Ridge in the north, on North and South Table Mountains, to Apex Park in the south. Jefferson County collections are mostly on the plains at the base of the foothills, with a few collections in the foothills, such as at Mayhem Gulch and Conifer. Found throughout Colorado on shortgrass prairie, rocky slopes, and dry forests.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Panicum capillare;

Area List: Golden.  

Panicum capillare L. “Witchgrass”

There is one collection on a disturbed roadside of South Table Mountain. Found along the base of the foothills in Jefferson County, mostly in the intensely-collected places of Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms. Scattered around Colorado. Native to the continental United States the southern provinces of Canada, and the Caribbean.

The name was applied by Linnaeus (1753) from known locations of Virginia and Jamaica.

 

Literature Cited:
- Löve, Áskell, 1980a.
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1900a.
- Smith, James P., 2012.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Pascopyrum smithii;

Area List: Golden.  

Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) Á. Löve. “Western Wheatgrass”

“Western Wheatgrass” — Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) Á. Löve — has been found in several places, including North and South Table Mountains, Heritage Square, and Tin Cup Ridge. Not surprisingly, it has been found at Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms, but also on some of the hogbacks in the southern part of Jefferson County. Found in all areas of Colorado except the highest mountains.

First published as Agropyron smithii Rydb. as a segregate from A. spicatum, which by Rydberg's comments may have been somewhat muddled. Love (1980a and 1980b) proposed a new monotypic genus Pascopyrum and placed P. smithii there, presumably because of the unusually large chromosome number (2n=56) that he also published.

The Jepson Manual of California treats this grass as Elymus smithii (Rydb.) Gould noting that it is likely a polyploid hybrid of E. lanceolatus and E. triticoides (Smith, 2012).

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1691, Pascopyrum smithii

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Poa arida;

Area List: Golden.  

Poa arida Vasey “Plains Bluegrass”

I have not seen “Plains Bluegrass” — Poa arida Vasey — or I have seen it and did not recognized it as a unique Poa. Apparently, it is quite similar to Poa fendleriana. The one collection in Golden s.l. was made at the intersection of US Highway 6 and 19th Street, an intersection that has been completely reconstructed since the collection was made. There is one other collection in Jefferson County made northwest of Ken Caryl and Kipling. That area has since been pretty well built over, but there are fragments of open space, e.g., Sledding Hill Park (Jefferson County), and a parcel owned by Foothills Park & Recreation District. Otherwise, the species is scattered around the valleys and dry plains, sometimes in alkaline areas.

George Vasey (1893) described P. arida from type specimen he collected at Socorro, New Mexico, in 1881.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Poa fendleriana;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1126, Poa fendleriana
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1815, Poa fendleriana

Area List: Golden.  

Poa fendleriana (Steud.) Vasey “Muttongrass”

There are several collections of “Muttongrass” — Poa fendleriana (Steud.) Vasey — in Golden s.l., from North Table Mountain and Apex Park. Collections are scattered around Jefferson County from Rocky Flats to the Buffalo Creek Recreation Area. Known from all areas of Colorado though sparingly on the eastern plains.

First recognized by Steudel (1855) who cited a collection by Fendler as Eragrostis fendleri. Placed in Poa by Vasey (1893a).

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Poa palustris;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1529, Poa palustris
Full Size ImageSpikelets of Coll. No. 1529, Poa palustris

Area List: Golden.  

Poa palustris L. “Fowl Bluegrass”

Found in only one place in Golden s.l., on the southwest slope of North Table Mountain, where running water from a spring creates a small wetland. Scattered around Jefferson County usually in riparian areas or otherwise damp soil. The grass is distributed circum-boreally.

It was named by Linnaeus (1759) with no locality given.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Poa secunda;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1855, Poa secunda ssp. secunda

Area List: Golden.  

Poa secunda J. Presl. “Sandberg Bluegrass”

There are three collections of “Sandberg Bluegrass” — Poa secunda J. Presl. — made in Golden s.l., one from Heritage Square by E. H. Brunquist, one from South Table Mountain, and one from the North Washington Open Space. The grass is fairly common on the high plains and foothills of Jefferson County, and found throughout Colorado except on the eastern plains.

The name Poa secunda was applied by Jan Presl who cited the mountains of Chile as the locality.

Sandberg Bluegrass is a New World species, native to northwestern North America (including Colorado) and from southern South America, i.e., Chile and Argentina.

 

Literature Cited:
- Vasey, George R., 1888.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Poa tracyi;

Locations: Mount Carbon.

Area List: Golden.  

Poa tracyi Vasey “Tracy's Bluegrass”

One collection by Marcus E. Jones in 1878 at foothills near Golden. One other collection from 1910 from Mount Carbon, Jefferson County. Otherwise found occasionally in Colorado in conifer and aspen forests, meadows, and in moist areas.

Named by George Vasey (1888) from a collection by Prof. S. M. Tracy near Raton, New Mexico.

 

Literature Cited:
- Britton, Nathaniel Lord, 1882.
- Merrill, E. D., 1938.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Pseudoroegneria spicata;

Area List: Golden.  

Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) A. Löve. “Bluebunch Wheat Grass”

There is one old collection of Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) A. Löve. “Bluebunch Wheat Grass” from Golden s.l. It was made by Nathaniel Lord Britton on 8 October 1882 along with 15 other specimens of mostly common plants. There is another collection made in the foothills northwest of Golden in 1963.

Other collections in Jefferson County are at Chatfield Farms and the lower Beaver Brook watershed. About 400 collections of this grass in Colorado, from the foothills of the Front Range to the west, with many collections along the Colorado River from Granby down to Dotsero.

 

Literature Cited:
- Peterson, Paul M., Konstatin Romaschenko, and Gabriel Johnson, 2010.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Schedonnardus paniculatus;

Area List: Golden.  

Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Trel. “Tumblegrass”

A relatively small perennial grass that should be common, but it is not often collected. It's distinguishing characteristic is a panicle breaks off when mature and is blown across the landscape thereby spreading the seeds.

Reports that the grass is often a conspicuous feature of deserted towns in films of the American West are overblown (pun fully intended!). That plant is usually the tumbleweed (Salsola tragus L.).

Recent phylogenetic work shows that S. paniculatus is deeply embedded within Muhlenbergia and we should probably be calling it Muhlenbergia paniculata (Nutt.) R.M. Peterson.

 

Literature Cited:
- Michaux, Andre, 1803.
- Small, John Kunkel, and Per Axel Rydberg, 1913.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Schizachyrium scoparium;

Area List: Golden.  

Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash “Little Bluestem”

For a grass that one would think would be very common, “Little Bluestem” — Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash — there are really only two collections in Golden s.l., a 1948 collection by Alan Beetle, and my own recent collection on North Table Mountain. There are, of course, other reports such as mine from Dakota Ridge, but why are there no collections from South Table Mountain or Heritage Square? There are some other collections from Jefferson County, e.g., Rocky Flats, but not many. Collections in Colorado are mainly along the Front Range, a few out in the eastern plains, with a scattering in the southern mountain areas. The grass is native to continental United States, except Oregon, Nevada, and Arizona, and the southern provinces of Canada.

First described as Andropogon scoparium by Michaux (1803) from plants in dry Carolina forests. George V. Nash, writing in Small and Rydberg (1913) moved it to Schizachyrium, applying a common name of “Broom Grass.”

Full Size Image
Schizachyrium scoparium (Little Blue Stem) in the Mines Survey Field.
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1735, Schizachyrium scoparium

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.
- Small, John Kunkel, and Per Axel Rydberg, 1913.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Sorghastrum nutans;

Area List: Golden.  

Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash “Yellow Indian Grass”

“Yellow Indian Grass” — Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash — has not been collected in the wild in Golden s.l. Instead, I grow it in my garden where, with a little water, it thrives. Known mostly from Rocky Flats and Ranson/Edwards in northern Jefferson County, it is found on the eastern plains and Front Range foothills, with a few localities in the southern mountains. Native to the United States and southern provinces of Canada from about the 111th meridian (central Arizona) and to the east.

First named Andropogon nutans by Linnaeus (1753) from descriptions of plants with habitat in Virginia and Jamaica, who applied the specific epithet of nutans because of the drooping habit of the panicle, it was moved to Sorghastrum nutans by Nash, writing in Small and Rydberg (1913).

Full Size Image
Inflorescence of Coll. No. 1249, Sorghastrum nutans
Full Size Image
Sorghastrum nutans “Yellow Indian Grass”

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, 1824b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Sporobolus airoides;

Area List: Golden.  

Sporobolus airoides (Torr.) Torr. “Alkali Sacaton”

Only seen in Golden s.l. as a garden weed. First collected by Dr. Edwin James MD on the branches of the Arkansas River, near the Rocky Mountains, and described by Torrey (1824b). Collected several times in Jefferson County in waste places, found in many places on the eastern plains up to the foothills, and in mountain valleys in southwest Colorado. Native to the western United States and British Columbia.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Sporobolus compositus;

Area List: Golden.  

Sporobolus compositus (Poir.) Merr. “Composite Dropseed”

Two collections, one on South Table Mountain, and the other at the former intersection of 19th Street and US Highway 6. High plains and foothills in Jefferson County. Not many collections in Colorado, but mainly out on the plains and against the foothills between Denver and Boulder. Known from most of the continental United States, except the far southwest.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Sporobolus cryptandrus;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1757, 31 Aug 2017;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1757, Sporobolus cryptandrus
Full Size ImageLeaf collar of Coll. No. 1757, Sporobolus cryptandrus

Area List: Golden.  

Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) A. Gray. “Sand Drop-seed”

Several collections from North Washington Open Space, Heritage Square, and South Table Mountain, with a couple of observations from North Table Mountain.

First collected by Edwin James, M.D., on the Canadian River, and described by John Torrey (1824) as Agrostis cryptandra Torr.

 

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1835.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Sporobolus heterolepis;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1714, Sporobolus heterolepis

Area List: Golden.  

Sporobolus heterolepis (A. Gray) A. Gray. “Prairie Drop-seed”

I have thought of “Prairie Drop-seed” — Sporobolus heterolepis (A. Gray) A. Gray — as an exclusively prairie grass. It turns out though that the first specimens described were from New York state (Gray, 1835). It was not until 1880 that it was known as far as the Black Hills. Britton and Brown (1896) note its distribution as far west as Arkansas, but it was really not until 1937 that Hitchcock wrote the grass was found as far west as Wyoming.

The grass has not been collected in Golden s.l., though it has been collected numerous times at Rocky Flats and Ranson/Edwards in northernmost Jefferson County, Colorado. It has also been found in clusters around Colorado Springs, and Soapstone Prairie Natural Prairie at the Wyoming Border. Collections in Wyoming have been on the edges of the Black Hills at the South Dakota border.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Vulpia octoflora;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1852, Vulpia octoflora

Area List: Golden.  

Vulpia octoflora (Walt.) Rydb. “Six Weeks Fescue”

Five collections from Magic Mountain Archeological Site, North Washington Open Space, and South Table Mountain, plus two observations from North Table Mountain. Probably more common but easily overlooked because of its small size. There are 21 collections from Jefferson County, including the intensely-collected locations of Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms. In Colorado, from the Front Rage east to Kansas and at lower elevations on the west slope. Generally thought to be native to all lower 48 states and the southern provinces of Canada.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Carex inops var. heliophila;
• Social Trail:   at corner;
• Field Notes:   14 Mar 2018;
Full Size ImageCarex inops var. heliophila along the trail.

Area List: Golden.  

Carex inops L.H. Bailey ssp. heliophila (Mack.) Crins “Sun Sedge”

This small, early blooming sedge has feen found throughout Golden s.l. open spaces, typically in open places where it can get a good start before taller plants. It is often found in full sun and can tolerate some dryness. It spreads slowly by rhizomes.

   

Juncus “Rushes” in Golden s.l.

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Juncus interior;
• WY Highway 230 West:   at Encampment R.;
Full Size ImageEphemeral stream crosses trail

Area List: Golden.  

Juncus interior Wiegand “Inland Rush”

Probably the most common rush around Golden s.l., Juncus interior Wiegand “Inland Rush” has been collected on North and South Table Mountains. The author has also seen it in the Stonebridge HOA open spaces. Jefferson County collections are mostly along the Front Range and in the lower foothills. Similarly, Colorado collections are mostly along the Front Range, with a smattering of locations throughout the state.

The name was published by Weigand (1900) as a segregate from J. secundus Poir. The type is from Richmond, Illinois, though Weigand also cited an 1897 Aven Nelson collection from the Encampment River, Wyoming.

 

Literature Cited:
- Ornduff, Robert, and Marion S. Cave, 1975.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Leucocrinum montanum;
• Survey Field Road:   at draw;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1303, 9 Apr 2016;
Full Size ImageLeucocrinum montanum on an old alluvial ridge in the Survey Field.

Area List: Golden.  

Leucocrinum montanum Nutt. ex A. Gray “Star Lily”

Leucocrinum montanum Nutt. ex A. Gray “Star Lily,” is very common in Golden s.l.. It is very likely present in those few areas where it has not been collected. Common along the Front Range from northernmost New Mexico, through Colorado and Wyoming, it has a similar south to north distribution in Nevada and California, with a kind of donut hole in some western parts of Colorado, Utah and eastern Nevada. As it happens, the eastern and western populations have somewhat different genetics, in that plants from the Rocky Mountains have n=14, whereas those from Nevada and California have n=13 (Ornduff & Cave, 1975)

Leucocrinum montanum is sometimes called “Sand Lily.” This is a misnomer. L. montanum really is not a plant of sandy sites. Instead, it grows in rocks, gravel, and rocky soil. Additionally, there are other “lilies” that definitely are found only in sand, and the common name “sand lily” should be reserved for them.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1303, Leucocrinum montanum in the Survey Field.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1813.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Yucca glauca;
Full Size ImageYucca glauca “Soapweed Yucca” on Dakota Ridge.

Area List: Golden.  

Yucca glauca Nutt. “Soapweed Yucca”

There is only one collection of Soapweed Yucca — Yucca glauca Nutt. — in Golden s.l. but observations in many places of this difficult to collect yucca.

First collected by Thomas Nuttall (1813) on his 1811 expedition up the Missouri River.

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Kim, Sang-Chul, Jung Sung Kim, Mark W. Chase, Michael F. Fay, and Joo-Hwan Kim, 2016.
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.
- Zomlefer, Wendy B., and Walter S. Judd, 2002.
- Zomlefer, Wendy B., Walter S. Judd, W. Mark Whitten, Norris H. Williams, 2006.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Toxicoscordion paniculatum;

Area List: Golden.  

Toxicoscordion paniculatum (Nutt.) Rydb. “Foothill Death Camas”

There is a Death Camas “Lily” that is quite common around Golden s.l. Found on North and South Table Mountains, Kinney Run, Tin Cup Ridge, and Lookout Mountain, it is probably also in the Survey Field and on Dakota Ridge. It has not been seen at North Washington Open Space, and perhaps has never been there, or perhaps is extirpated. The difficulty comes in applying a valid name.

Death Camas — Zigadenus or Toxicoscordion — in Colorado is a bit of a mess.

First there is the question of applying the correct genus. Our most recent Colorado author (Ackerfield, 2015) and FNANM (Vol. 26, 2003) apply Zigadenus Michx. On the other hand, the penultimate Colorado authors (Weber & Wittman, 2012) apply Toxicoscordion and the most recent molecular investigations supported by morphological characters support separation of the western Toxicoscordion from the southeastern Zigadenus glaberrimus (Kim, et al., 2016 and Zomlefer, et al., 2006). In particular Zigadenus glaberrimus has a rhizome, whereas all the Toxicoscordion have a bulb.

Within the western Toxicoscordion, three taxa relevant to Golden s.l.: T. paniculatum, and T. venenosum, and T. gramineum that is usually treated as a variety of one of the other two.

Ackerfield (2015) accepts paniculatus as Zigadenus paniculatus and places venenosus and gramineus as varieties. then Z. paniculatus var venenosus is not treated in Flora of Colorado because it only occurs west of Colorado.

Meanwhile Weber & Wittmann (2012) accept Toxiscordion venenosum and treat T. paniculatum and T. gramineum as synonyms thereof.

Therefore any Death Camas under Zigadenus collected in Colorado and identified with Ackerfield (2015) would be treated as Z. paniculatus, variety paniculatus or gramineus.

On the other hand, Death Camas collected in Colorado and identified with Weber & Wittman (2012) will be Toxiscordion venenosum. T. gramineum and T paniculatum are treated as synonyms.

This is somewhat similar to Eriogonum arcuatum and E. flavum in which the name applied can be determined by the date of collection. Like the Wild Buckwheat, I suspect the name confusion in Death Camas names is carried over into herbarium specimens and their data bases, as seen on SEINet.

So, I think in the short run the best name to apply is Toxicoscordion because of current phylogenetic thought, and the specific epithet of paniculatum because venenosum only occurs west of Colorado. As much as I would like to apply the varietal name gramineum, I don't think that is a good idea, because so many of the Golden s.l. collections were never determined to variety.

The remaining three Zigadenus cited in Ackerfield (2015) would be placed in Anticlea Kunth, i.e., Anticlea elegans (Pursh) Rydberg, A. vaginata Rydberg, and A. virescens (Kunth) Rydberg (Zomlefer and Judd, 2002).

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1834a.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Maianthemum racemosum amplexicaule;

Area List: Golden.  

Maianthemum racemosum (L.) Link ssp. amplexicaule (Nutt.)LaFrankie “Feathery False Lily of the Valley”

There are three collections of “Feathery False Lily of the Valley” — Maianthemum racemosum (L.) Link subsp. amplexicaule (Nutt.) LaFrankie — that give Lookout Mountain as the collection locality and may be from Golden s.l. Since a good part of Apex Park is inside the city limits of Golden, it is likely that this plant occurs there.

The plant was first described by Thomas Nuttall (1834a) from a collection made by Nathaniel Wyeth on his return from Oregon Territory.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Allium textile;

Area List: Golden.  

Allium textile A. Nelson & J.F. Macbr. “Textile Onion”

Very common in Golden s.l., Allium textile A. Nelson & J.F. Macbr. “Textile Onion”, has been found in every open space. Most of the Jefferson County collections were made right along the Front Range. Colorado state collections are made along the Front Range and out on the plains, then on the farther western slope.

The name Allium textile A. Nelson & J. F. Macbr. was published in 1913, because the name in use for this entity, A. reticulatum Fraser, was illegitimate. SEINet contains 169 collections of A. textile that were made before that date. The names applied are mostly A. reticulatum Fraser, nom. illeg., A. aridus (=A. textile), and A. nuttallii (=A. drummondii).

  [Previous Page] [Next Page]

Go to page: [1] [3] [6] [63] [633] [7] [8] [9]

If you have a question or a comment you may write to me at: tas4@schweich.com I sometimes post interesting questions in my FAQ, but I never disclose your full name or address.  


[Home Page] [Site Map]

Date and time this article was prepared: 6/26/2022 3:04:23 PM